Chapter Two; Bio 210 (Cells) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Two; Bio 210 (Cells) Deck (85):
1

Matter

anything that takes up space

2

Energy

ability to move matter (w=f/d)

3

Potential Energy

stored energy

4

Kinetic Energy

moving matter

5

Chemistry

study of matter and changes it undergoes

6

Inorganic v.s Organic Chemistry

Organic- always contain carbon (Carbons has to either bond with another carbon or hydrogen bond C-H or C-C)
Inorganic- do not have a carbon to carbon or a h-h bond

7

4 different types of energy

Thermal, Mechanical, Light, Electrical, Sound, Chemical, and Gravitational

8

Two laws of thermodynamics

1- Energy can not be created nor destroyed
2- In an energy transaction energy is always lost as heat

9

Element

are the building blocks of matter (pure substance)

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Explain: Understanding the fundamental nature of life is accomplished within the context of chemistry

Life is always undergoing change, if one can understand chemistry, which is the study of matter and change it undergoes, one can understand the nature of life

11

Name six elements that make up about 98% of the human body? And 96%?

96%- CHON (carbon, hyrdogen, oxygen, nitrogen)
98%- Calcium and Phosphorus

12

Atoms

smallest particle of an element that can display the characteristics of that element, and enter into a chemical reaction
(H= one atom of Hydrogen, C= one atom of Carbon)

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Nucleus

the center of an atom in which electrons move around

14

Proton

one positive charge

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Neutron

no electric charge

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Electron

one negative charge (2,8,18,32,50,72)

17

Isotopes of elements

(C-12; 6p 6n) (C-13; 6p 7n)
*different number of neutrons in different atoms of the same element*

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Atomic number

number of protons in nucleus

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Mass number (atomic mass)

# of protons and # of neutrons

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Atomic Weight

average mass number of all isotopes of an element

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Outer energy level

valence shell

22

Octet rule
(H and He only exceptions)

no matter how many shells exist in an atom from energy level to energy level seven, the max number of electrons in the valence shell is 8
(when atoms fill their valence shell the atoms are stable)

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Ion

more electrons OR less electrons than protons

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Cation +

more protons than electrons

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Anion -

more electrons than protons

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Ionic Bond

Cation + Anion
Ex: NaCl (see leather book for picture)
*Ionic bonds are WEAK*

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Covalent Bond

atoms SHARE electrons to make new substances
*Non Polar and Polar*

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Non Polar covalent bond

atoms of the same element form together because the same element has the same number of electrons
Ex: H + H => H2

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Polar covalent bond

atoms shared unequally
Ex: H2+O => H2O (molecular compound)
*covalent bonds are STRONGER than ionic bonds*
(See leather book for picture)

30

Hydrogen Bonds

when a POSITIVE end of one polar molecule is weakly attracted to the NEGATIVE end of another polar molecule
(occur mostly between H,O,N)
*weaker than ionic and covalent bonds*
(their function is to hold molecules together and dictate shape of molecule)

31

Ionic bonding FACT

When atoms come together to form ionic bonds, the atoms DO NOT share valence electrons. Atoms give away or accept valence e-. This creates ions. The reason they stay together is because of the opposite charges between the cation and anion. Negative forces pull them together. Their bonds are WEAK and tend to cluster together forming crystaline structures... salt.

32

Molecules of elements vs compunds

Compounds: Only covalent compunds are molecules, not ionic because they do not share electrons.
Elements: non polar covalent bonds

33

Dissociate

when ions seperate.
Ex: NaCl is put into water. The cation goes towards the negative ends of h20 and the anion attracted to positive ends of h20.

34

Metabolism

sum of all chemical reactions in the body

35

Metabolism:
Anabolic
Catabolic

Anabolic- chemical reaction when smaller substances form larger substances
Catabolic- chemical reaction when larger substances BREAK into smaller substances

36

Energy Flow in Chemical Reaction:
Energonic
Exergonic

Endergonic- stores energy
Exergonic- releases energy

37

Reactants and Products in Chemical Reactions

Anabolic (endergonic)
Metabolism----->
Catabolic (exergonic)

Endergonic (anabolic)
Energy Flow----->
Exergonic (catabolic)

38

4 Factors that influence the Rate of Chemical Reactions
* R C T C *

Reactants and ability to react: all elements react differently to other elements
Concentration of the reactants: greater the concentration, more likely the reacting molecules are to come into contact with one another
Temperature: greater the temp. greater the reaction
Catalysts: increase rate of chemical reaction without being changed in the reaction (enzymes)

39

Synthesis Reaction
(Dehydration synthesis reaction)

ABC=A+B+C
Reactant=product

occurs when two or more reactants combine to form larger, more complex product
Ex: C6H12O6---> C12H22O11 + H2O
(Anabolic, endergonic reaction) STORES ENERGY

40

Decomposition Reaction
(Hydrolysis)

occurs when reactants are broken down into smaller less complex products. (Digestion of food molecules)
Ex: C12H22O11 + H2O -----> C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
(catabolic, exergonic reaction) RELEASES energy

41

Water universal solvent for living organisms

Water dissaciates different compounds and elements because of the positive and negative attractions of H20 because of the polarity of water

42

Water's interactions with hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules

Hydrophilic- mixes with water (NaCl)
Hydrophobic- does not mix with water (fats, lipids, waxes)

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Importance of water because it is a polar molecule

Water can seperate compunds

44

Water creates hydrogen bonds

hydrogen bonds allow other chemicals to attach to them to be transported throughout the blood such as nutirents. It attaches to the hydrogen bonds that water produces (H2O)

45

ADP to ATP

ADP + P + E ====> ATP ( []-P~P~P )
ATP - P - E =====> ADP 9molecule has less energy than ATP)

46

Electrolyte

soluble inorganic substance whose ions will conduct an electrical current when dissociated in a solution (ALL ionic compounds are electrolytes) SALT

47

Acid

a substance that dissociates in water, releasing "free" hydrogen ions. ( H+ )
*Buffers remove hydrogen ions when in a solution together*

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Base

a substance that either accepts H+, or releases hydroxide ions in a solution ( OH- )

49

Buffers

Resists rapid changes in pH. Weak acid and weak base. *Bicarbonate buffer system in the blood* (Buffer System)

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pH rising in blood

alkalosis

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pH falling in blood

acidosis

52

Calcium

Ca can deposit elsewhere and can cause problems. Cowboy bones, calcium deposits in the heart

53

Isomers

molecules with the same chemical formula but a different chemical structure. Ex: Glucose and Fructose (C6H12O6)

54

Amino Acid (monomer)

building blocks of proteins. AA-AA-AA-AA-AA (multiple AA's put together are polymers)

55

Proteins

contain C,H,O,N and most have sulfur.

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Carbohydrates

energy storage or energy usage (most sugars end in 'ose')

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Monosaccharides

simple sugars (single sugars) only have 3 to 7 carbons
Ex: C6H12O6
Used for energy because it's small

58

Disaccharides

combining two monosaccharides together
Ex: Sucrose

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Polysaccharides

putting many and many of monosaccharides together. Ex: Starch and Cellulose (glycogen is animal starch)

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COOH

acid group

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Saturated Fats

no double C bonds
Ex: C-C-C-C-C-

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Unsatruated Fats

double Carbon bonds
Ex: C-C-C=C=C-C

63

Fatty Acid

determines chemical property of Triglycerides
(Determined saturation by the length of bond between carbon atoms (most are 14-18 carbons))

64

Mono, Di and Triglycerides

One Fatty Acid, Two Fatty Acids and Three Fatty Acids bonded to glycerol. []=glycerole ()=water [____]=fatty acid
[]()[___] =======> [][____]
enzymes

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Functions of Trigylcerides

Energy Storage
Insulation *** ( P I E ) ***
Protection

66

Phospholipids

most abundant molecules of plasma membrane in living cells. Important for structure and permeability

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Head of phospholipids

Polar, hydrophillic

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Tail of phospholipid

Lipid, non polar, hydrophobic

69

Steroids

Cholesterol ! all steroids derived from cholesterol (Sex hormones: testosterone, estrogen and Bile Salts)

70

Proteins

are polymers made of monomers called amino acids
-most abundant organic molecule in the body (20% of body weight) ALL contain CHON

71

Polypeptide

2-99 amino acids

72

Proteins

> 100 amino acids

73

Peptide v.s Proteins

the only difference is the number of amino acids

74

Functions of proteins in the body

Catalysts
Structure and protection
Plasma membranes of cells
Transport
Receptors (sense that something is wrong) Markers (self v.s non self, kill anything that doesn't belong)
Muscle contraction

75

Enzyme

increase the rate of a reaction without being permanently changed

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Substrates

attach to enzymes to carry out the enzymes function. (Lactase to lactose, fructase to fructose)

77

Substration attachment

once a substrate attaches to the enzyme the enzyme breaks and quickly changes shape.

78

Energy of Activation

minimum energy needed to start a chemical reaction

79

ENZYME EXAMPLE

molecule A.....
ENZYME......
molecule B.....

molecule A+moleculeB+ENZYME=> enzyme breaks=> moleculeAB

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Specificity

the enzymes can't just react with ANYTHING

81

Factors that affect enzyme catalyzed reactions

Cofactors and Cozenzymes
Temperature
pH
Concentration of enzyme or substrate

82

Competetive Inhibition

when a substrate and another molecule compete for the active site of an enzyme

83

Noncompetetive Inhibition

when a molecule beats the substrate to the allosteric site, In return, altering the shape of the active site

84

Active Site

structural site where the substrate can perfectly fit in the enzyme

85

Allosteric Site

the second site on an enzyme that can sometimes be a different site from the active site. (Square shape v.s round shape)