Chapter Three; Bio 210 (Cells and Function) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Three; Bio 210 (Cells and Function) Deck (80):
1

Denature

to change the shape of molecules

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*Major parts of the cells (Eukaryotic)

Plasma Membrane
Nucleus
Cytoplasm (Cytosol & Organelles)

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*Functions of plasma membrane

Physical seperation (ECF & ICF)
Permeability
Receptors and Markers
Structure

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*Prokayotic

NO nucleus

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*Eukaryotic

with nucleus

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*Cytology

study of cells

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*Spontaneous Generation

things can arise from nothing (mice made from wet towel and broken corn)

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*Cell

fundamental unit of life

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*Robert Hooke

termed the word "cell"

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VanLeewenhoek

invented the first microscope

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*Schleiden and Schwan THEN Virchow

first statement of the cell theory "All living things are composed of cells"... then Virchow said "All living cells come from preexisting living cells.

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FAITH ANSWERS WHAT REASON CANNOT

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Plasma Membrane molecules (Fig 3.2 Text)

Lipids
Proteins
Carbohydrates

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Phospholipids

most abundant molecule in plasma membrane (Digylcerrides because two fatty acid tails) PO2

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Cholesterol

is in the hydrophobic areas of the phospholipids

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Integral Proteins

protein that extends from one side of the membrane to the other
(Help in transporting across the membranes)

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Peripheral Proteins

do not extend all the way past the membrane

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Marker Protein

self v.s non self

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Attachment Proteins

attaches from one cell to another cell

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Membrane Transport Proteins

Channel Proteins (open 24/7) concentration determines what gets through

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Carrier Protein

have to bind with the protein, protein changes shape, then carried throughout the membrane

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Passive carrier protein

always taken down concentration grade

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Active carrier protein

taken up the concentration gradient using energy (ATP)

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Glycolipids

carbohydrates that extend past the surface of the cell membrane

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Functions of glycocalyx

Protection
Anchoring
Receptors
Marker

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Glycocalyx

ALL carbohydrates attached to the cell membrane

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Nuclear Envelope

surrounds the nucleus

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Nuclear Pore

-

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Nucleoplasm

surrounds the nucleolus

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Nucleolus

Inside the nucleus

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Chromatin

strands of genes inside the nucleolus

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Protein pathway: inside to outside of cell

Ribosome----ER----vesicle to----Golgi App----vesicle to--- plasma membrane and is released by exocytosis

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Cytoplasm

made of cytosol and organelles

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Nonmembranous Organelles

Cytoskeleton
Microvilli (increase surface area)
Cilia/Flagella (helps with movement)
Centrosome/Centrioles (no membranes)

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Smooth ER

lipid and steroid synthesis
no ribosomes

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Rough ER

lipids and ribosomes
used for protein synthesis

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Golgi Apparatus

secretory vesicles
membrane renewal veicles
lysosomes

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Peroxisomes

membrane bound vesicle (breaks down)

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Lysosomes

membrane bound vesicle pinched off by Golgi (digestive enzymes)

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Mitochondria

powerhouse of cell (ATP)

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Freely permeable membrane

loses regulation

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Selective permeable

somethings can get in and can get out vice versa for not

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Point of the permeable membrane

regulation of the internal environment

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CIM-H-CEM

Communication
Integration
Movement
HOMEOSTASIS
Compartmentalization
Energy flow and use
Mass balance and flow

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Solute vs Solvent

salt and water

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Concentration Gradient

difference of concentration from one place to another (down= higher to lower concentration gradient)

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Equillibrium

equal concentration on both sides

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Mediate

help or assist

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Assisted Movement (and unassisted)

when a protein carries a molecule across

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Passive Transport

two characteristics:
(a) ALWAYS goes down the concentration gradient
(b) NO ATP required (but energy IS required.. kinetic)

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Active Transport

two characteristics:
(a) May move up the concentration gradient
(b) Requires ATP

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Passive Transport Mechanisms

Simple Diffusion
Osmosis
Facilitated Diffusion

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Diffusion

(Passive, unassisted) DOES NOT NEED A MEMBRANE
movement of particles from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower concentration

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Factors that affect rate of diffusion * DESTSP *

Distance
Electrical gradient
Size of particles
Temperature
Size of concentration
Pressure gradient (capillaries and kidneys- filtration)

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Net Diffusion

movement down the concentration gradient (no net flow when in equilibrium)

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Diffusion through bilipid layer

O2, CO2, small alcohols

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Diffusion through leak channels (proteins)

-small water molecules and ions (they're hydrophobic)
-have specificity

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Osmosis

(passive, unassisted) ALWAYS WATER AND MEMBRANE
The NET movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of lower concentration of solutes to a higher concentration of solutes. (concentration of water determined by amount of solutes)

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Osmotic Pressure

pressure in the cell that pushes back against the plasma membrane to keep the water outside from letting too much water in

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Simple Diffusion

passive, unassisted (through bilipid layer O2, CO2)

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Osmosis is

unassisted

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Passive Transport Mechanisms

Simple Diffusion
Osmosis
Facilitated Diffusion

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Facilitated Diffusion

Assisted
-protein changes shape and helps outside molecule move intracellular (can occur in either direction)

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Ligand

anything that binds to a protein in a membrane (molecules... anything)

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Aquaporin

protein channel that lets water come through

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Nonpenetrating solute

molecules that can't pass through the membrane

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Osmolarity

total concentration of solutes in a solution (ICF or ECF)

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Isosmotic

concentration of solutes in two solutions (ECF and ICF) are the same

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Hyperosmotic

higher concentration of solutes in one solution than another

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Hyposmotic

lower concentration of solutes in a solution than another

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Isotonic (tone/effect/shape)

equal concentration of solutes in both solutes

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Hypertonic

cell is expanded about to bust because of more concentration of solute

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Hypotonic

cell is shrunken because less concentration of solute

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Crenation

when a cell shrinks

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Lysis

when a cell bursts

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Vesicular Transport (endo and exo)

Active; moves materials in and out of cells in vesicles

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Exocytosis

takes materials OUT of cells

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Endocytosis

brings material IN to the cells

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Active Carrier Mediated Transport

requires ATP (unlike facilitated diffusion/passive carrier transport = no ATP)

80

Three types of endocytosis

all take into cell
Phagocytosis- eats
Pinocytosis- drinks
Receptor-mediated endocytosis- binds with receptor in