Chapter One; Bio 210 (Systems) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter One; Bio 210 (Systems) Deck (54):
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Anatomy

study of structure of body and structural relationship between its parts

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Physiology

study of function of body and its functional relationship between its parts

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Clinical or Pathological Anatomy

study of change in structure due to disease or disaster

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Surface Anatomy

using palpation of the body for abnormalties

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Saggital Plane

Down the middle. Anterior cephalic to anterior scrotum

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Frontal Plane

Down the side.

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Transverse Plane

Through the abdomen.

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Dividing Planes

Extremities- proximal or distal
Other- superior or inferior

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Types of Anatomy

5 types
Systemic- study by systems
Regional- study by areas
Surface- study external features
Organ- study by organ
Clinical- study of chance due to disease or disaster

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Levels of Organization

Chemical- atoms
Organelle- permanent/important structural/functional unit within a cell
Cell- basic structural and functional unit of life
Tissue- group of specialized cells arranged to function together
Organ- 2 or more different tissues that work together
Organ System- 2 or more organs that work together to perform complex functions
Organism: Living things

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Organelle

Permanent/important structural/functional unit within a cell

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Tissue

Group of specialized cells arranged to function together

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Organ System

2 or more organs that work together to perform complex functions

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Organ

2 or more different tissues that work together

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Characteristics of Life

Organization
Metabolism
Responsiveness
Growth
Development
Reproduction

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Organizaiton

Parts of organisms have specific relationships to each other and they interact to perform specific functions

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Metabolism

All chemical and physical changes taking place in an organism

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Responsiveness

Organism sense changes in external and internal environment and makes adjustment to maintain life

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Growth

Increase in size of all or part of organism

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Development

Changes organism undergoes (birth-----death)

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Reproduction

Formation of new cells OR new organism

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Homeostasis

Body's ability to maintain a physiological balance in the face of constant internal and external change

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Homeostatic Mechanism

Maintaining a set point (shivering, sweating)

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Negative Feedback Mechanisms

Body attempts to NEGATE or REVERSE effects of stimulus that causes change. Example: Body Temp.

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Positive Feedback Mechanisms

Body attempts to INCREASE or INTENSIFY the stimulus, not reverse. (very rare) Example: Blod clot, clots until the stimulus is no longer needed.

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Visceral Peritomeum

Surrounds organs

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Parietal Peritoneum

lines wall of abdominopelvic cavity and inferior surface of diaphram

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Peritoneal Cavity

between visceral peritoneum and parietal peritoneum

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Serous Membrane

covers organs; fluid produced by membranes

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Retroperitoneal Cavity

kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, urinary bladder; NOT part of paritoneal cavity

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Organ Systems

Nervous
Lymphatic
Digestive
Respirtatory
Muscular
Skeletal
Urinary
Endocrine
Reproductive
Cardiovascular
Integumentary

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Reprductive

Site of fertilization (ovary, testes)

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Urinary

Removes waste from blood (kidney, bladder, urethra)

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Digestive

Digestion, absorption, and removal of wastes (liver, gallbladder, appendix, rectum, intestines)

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Muscular

Body movements, posture, body heat (muscles)

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Respiratory

Exchange 02 and CO2 between blood and air (nose, trachea, pharynx, bronchi, lungs)

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Lymphatic

Removes foreign substances from blood and lymph. Maintains tissue fluid balance (lymph node, tonsils, spleen, axillary and inguinal lymph node)

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Cardiovascular

Transports nutrients, waste products, gases and hormones (veins, arteries, aortas, jugular, vena cava)

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Endocrine

Metabolism, growth and hormones (Thyroid, Pancreas, Testes, Adrenals, Ovaries)

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Nervous

Detects sensations and controls movements (brain, spine, nerves)

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Skeletal

Protection and support body movements, produces blood cells, stores minerals and fat (bones)

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Integumentary

Provides protection, regulates temp., reduces water loss (skin)

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Anatomical Position

standing erect, face directed forward, limbs handing freely and palms facing forward

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Internal Environment

Inside body; ECF (extracellular fluid)

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Intracellular Environment

Cells; ICF (Intracellular fluid) ; called cytosol

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Homeostatic Regulation

Primarily controlled by Nervous and Endocrine System.
Nervous:
Action potential (nerve impulses)
Faster!
Effects over rapidly
Endocrine:
Hormones
Slower
Effects last longer

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Five Components of Homeostatic Regulatory Mechanisms (RACEE)

Receptor
Afferent
Control Center
Efferent
Effector

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Receptor

Receives some kind of stimulus

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Afferent Pathway

From receptor to control center

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Control Center

Receives information from receptor, integrates info., then sends response

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Efferent Pathway

Control Center to Effector;

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Effector

Structure that responds to control center. MUSCLES and/or GLANDS (cause change)

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True Body cavities

Dorsal: Brain and Spine
Ventral: Thoracic and Abdominopelvic --> Abdominal and Pelvic

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Excretion

Elimination of bodily wastes (CO2, sugars, acids)