Chapter 6 Genetics, Conception, and Fetal Development VOCAB Flashcards Preview

xxx Term 5: NUR 312 Maternal Child Nursing > Chapter 6 Genetics, Conception, and Fetal Development VOCAB > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 6 Genetics, Conception, and Fetal Development VOCAB Deck (35)
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1

Alleles

An alternate form of a gene.

2

Aneuploidy

An abnormal number of chromosomes.

3

Cephalocaudal

Progression from head to toe (head-to-rump)

4

Chromosomes

Threadlike packages of genes and other DNA in the nucleus of a cell.

5

Diploid

Having a pair of chromosomes (46, or 23 pairs, in humans) that represents one copy of every chromosome from each parent; the number of chromosomes normally present in body cells other than gametes.

6

Euploid cell

A cell with the correct or normal number of chromosomes within the cell.

7

Gamete

Reproductive cell; in the female an ovum and in the male a spermatozoon.

8

Genotype

Genetic makeup of an individual.

9

Haploid

Having one copy of a chromosome from each pair (23 in humans, or half the diploid number). Gametes normally have a haploid number of chromosomes.

10

Hematopoiesis

Production of blood cells; normally occurs in the bone marrow but may occur in extramedullary sites.

11

Heterozygous

Having two different alleles for a genetic trait.

12

Homologous

pairing at meiosis and having the same structural features and pattern of genes.

13

Homozygous

Having two identical alleles for a genetic trait.

14

Human genome

The complete set of genetic instructions in the nucleus of each human cell.

15

Hydramnios

Excessive volume of amniotic fluid (more than 2000 ml at term). Also called polyhydramnios.

16

Karyotype

A picture of a cell's chromosomes, arranged from largest to smallest pairs.

17

Lanugo

Fine, soft hair covering the fetus.

18

Meiosis

Reduction cell division in gametes that halves the number of chromosomes in each cell.

19

Mitosis

Cell division in body cells other than the gametes.

20

Monosomy

Presence of only one of a chromosome pair in every body cell.

21

Multiple-marker screening

Analysis of maternal serum for abnormal levels of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and estriols that may predict chromosomal abnormalities of the fetus; often called triple-screen or quad screen.

Addition of tests such as inhibin A have improved accuracy of the results, leading to alternate names for the package of tests.

22

Mutation

Change in a gene that usually affects its function. Mutations may be in either the gametes or the somatic cells.

23

Nuchal cord

Umbilical cord around the fetal neck.

24

Oligohydramnios

Abnormally light or reduced menstruation.

25

Oogenesis

Formation of gametes (ova) in the female.

26

Phenotype

The outward expression of one's genetic makeup.

27

Polyploidy

Having additional full sets of chromosomes

28

Pseudomenstruation

Vaginal bleeding in the newborn, resulting from withdrawal of placental hormones.

29

Sex chromosomes

The X or Y chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one X and one Y chromosome.

30

Somatic cells

Body cells other than the gametes, or germ cells.