Chapter 6 Muscle Imbalances Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Muscle Imbalances Deck (21)
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What are 4 tendencies of clients who sit for long periods of time throughout the day?

-Tight hip flexors

-Rounded shoulders

-Forward head

-Poor cardio-respiratory conditioning


Working with arms over head for long periods of time may lead to weakness and tightness in what muscles.

How does this affect the shoulder during activity?

-Tight lats

-Weak rotator cuff

-Causes improper shoulder motion and stabilization during activity


Wearing high heals causes tightness in which muscles and tendon?

What sort of postural imbalance does this cause?

What then happens to the foot?

-Tight gastrocnemius, soleus, and achilles tendon

-Leads to decreased dorsiflexion and overpronation

-Flattening of the arch


Name 3 biological outcomes of proper posture. Describe four benefits of these outcomes and how it works.

1. Optimal neuromuscular efficiency--helps for safe and effective movement 

2a. Optimally aligned muscles with proper length-tension relationships-needed for

2b. Efficient force coupling, creating appropriate muscle recruitment--Both maximize force production (strength).

3. Proper arthrokinematics (joint motion)--effective absorption and distribution of forces (kinetic chain)--alleviates stress on joints


What is a restraint of observing static posture?

Doesn't indicate whether a problem is structural or from poor muscular recruitment patterns.


In pronation distortion syndrom which 5 muscles are short?

1. Calfs (limits dorsi flexion so the feet turn out to get mor ROM)

2. Peroneals (everts the ankle)

3. Adductors

4. Biceps femoris short head (attaches lower femur to fibula, flexes knee and ext. rot. lower leg)

5. TFL (causes slight int rot of femur and ext rot of tibia though its ITB connection to the tibia and the fact that the ilium attachment is more anterior.)


In Pronation Distortion Syndrome which 8 muscles are lengthened?

1./2. Tibialis anterior and posterior (if strong, would cause ankle inversion)

3. Medial gastroc (if strong, tibia int. rot.)

4. Medial hamstring (tibia int. rot.)

5. Popliteus (tibia int. rot. and knee stabilization)

6. Gracilis (tibia int. rot. and knee stabilization

7. Sartorius (laterally rotates the thigh when knee is straight)

8. Vastus medialis (aligns patella and knee stabilization)


In pronation distortion syndrom which 4 joint mechanics are increased?

Knee adduction

Knee internal rotation

Foot pronation

Foot external rotation


In pronation distortion syndrome which 2 jont mechanics are decreased in the ankle?

Ankle dorsiflexion

Ankle inversion


In pronation distortion syndrome what are 4 common possilbe injuries?

Plantar fascitis

Posterior tibialis tendonitis (shin splints)

Patellar tendonitis

Low back pain


Pronation distortion syndrome is characterized by what tendencies in the feet and knees?

Feet pronation (flat feet)

Adducted and internally rotated knees (knock knees)


Lower Crossed Syndrome is characterized by what postural distortion?

Anterior pelvic tilt


Upper crossed syndrome is characterized by what two postural distortions?

Forward head

Rounded shoulders


What 6 muscles are SHORT in LOWER CROSSED syndrome?



hip flexors


latissimus dori

erector spinae


What 3 muscle groups are LENGTHENED in LOWER CROSSED syndrome?

Tibialis anterior/posterior


Abdominal muscles


What joint movement is increased and which is decreased in the lower back and hips for LOWER CROSS syndrome?

Increased: lumbar extension

Decreased: hip extension


What 3 possible injuries occur from LOWER CROSSED syndrome?

1. Hamstring complex strain (because of excessive pull on their length)

2. Anterior knee pain (because of tendncy to lock the knees)

3. Low back pain (because of hyperlordosis)


What 8 muscles are short in UPPER CROSSED syndrome?

1. Upper trapezius

2. Levator scapula

3. SCM

4. Scalines

5. Pecs

6. Lats (adducts extends internally rotates horizontally abducts shoulder) (probably upper lats just below lower border of scapula causing int. rotation of shoulder by pulling the humerus backwards)

7. Teres major (due to insertion at anterior humerus, causes arm behind back movement direction)

8. Subscapularis (humerus internal rotation and adduction)


What 7 muscles are LENGTHENED in UPPER CROSSED syndrome?

1. deep cervical flexors (chin tuck head lift)

2. serratus anterior inferior

3. rhomboids

4. mid-trapezius

5. lower trapezius

6. teres minor (lawn mower cord pulling movement)

7. infraspinatus (shoulder external rotation)


Which joint mechanics are increased (list 3) and decreased (list 2) in UPPER CROSSED syndrome?


Cervical extension

Scapular protraction

Scapular elevation



Shoulder extension (because arms are in front of you not behind?)

Shoulder external rotation


What are 4 common injuries with UPPER CROSSED syndrome?

1. Headaches

2. Biceps tendonitis

3. Rotator cuff impingement

4. Thoracic outlet syndrome