chapter 64 - Response to hazmat incidents Flashcards Preview

Block 4 test > chapter 64 - Response to hazmat incidents > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 64 - Response to hazmat incidents Deck (87):
1

acids

materials that have a pH value less than 7 (ex hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid)

2

acute exposure

an exposure that occurs over a short timeframe (less than 24 hrs) usually occurs at a spill or release

3

air reactive materials

materials that react with atmospheric moisture and rapidly decompose

4

alpha particle

a positively charged particle emitted by certain radioactive materials

5

asphyxiants

chemicals that impair the body's ability to either get or use oxygen

6

autoignition point

the temperature at which a material ignites and burns without an ignition source

7

bases

materials with a pH value greater than 7 (ex sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide)

8

beta particle

a negatively charged particle emitted by certain radioactive materials

9

boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion

an explosion that can occur when a vessel containing a pressurized liquid ruptures

10

boiling point

the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the material being heated equals atmospheric pressure (760 Hg); water boils to steam at 100 C (212 F)

11

bulk containers

large containers and tanks used to transport large quantities of hazardous materials

12

carboys

glass or plastic bottles commonly used to transport corrosive products

13

chemical asphyxiants

chemical that prevent the transportation of oxygen to the cells or the use of oxygen at the cellular level

14

chronic exposure

an exposure to low concentrations ocer a long period

15

cold zone

a safe area isolated from the area of contamination; also called the support zone. This zone has safe and easy access. It contains the command post and staging areas for personnel, vehicles, and equipment. EMS personnel are stationed in the cold zone

16

contamination

the deposition or absorption of chemical, biological, or radiologic materials onto personnel or other materials

17

contamination reduction zone

see warm zone

18

corrosive

any liquid or solid that can destroy human flesh on contact or has a severe corrosion rate on steel

19

cryogenic

pertaining to extremely low temperatures

20

cylinders

nonbulk containers that normally contain liquefied gases, nonliquified gases, or mixtures under pressure; cylinders also may contain liquids or solids

21

decontamination

the physical and chemical process of reducing and preventing the spread of contamination from persons and equipment used at a hazardous materials incident; also referred to as contamination reduction

22

emergency decontamination

the process of decontaminating people exposed to and potentially contaminated with hazardous materials by rapidly removing most of the contamination to reduce exposure and save lives, with secondary regard for completeness of decontamination

23

explosive

any chemical compound, mixture, or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by detonation or rapid compustion ; found in liquid or solid forms

24

flammable

the capacity of a substance to ignite

25

flammable gases

any compressed gas that meets requirements for lower flammability limit, flammability limit range, flame projection, or flame propagation as specified in CFR title 49, sec 173.300 (b) (ex butane, acetylene, hydrogen, propane)

26

flammable range

the concentration of fuel and air between the lower flammable limit or lower explosive limit and the upper flammable limit or upper explosive limit; the mixture of fuel and air in the flammable range supports combustion

27

flammable solids

a solid material other than an explosive that is liable to cause fires through friction, retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or that can be ignited readily; when ignited, they burn so vigorously and persistently that they create a serious transportation hazard (ex phosphorus, lithium, magnesium, titanium, calcium resinate)

28

flashpoint

the minimum temperature at which a substance evaporates fast enough to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the substance

29

gamma rays

a type of electromagnetic radiation that can travel great distances; can be stopped by heavy shielding, such as lead

30

half-life

the measure of the rate of decay of a radioactive material; indicates the time needed for half of a given amount of a radioactive material to change to another nuclear from or element

31

hazard communication standard

HAZCOM - OSHA standard regarding worker protection when handling chemicals

32

hazardous materials

a substance (solid, liquid, or gas) capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, environment or property

33

Hazardous waste operations and emergency response

HAZWOPER - OSHA and EPA regulations regarding worker safety when responding to hazardous materials emergencies

34

hot zone

the area in which contamination currently exists or area that may be contaminated in a short period; also called the exclusion area. Patients are removed from this area to the warm zone for decontamination. Entrance to the hot zone requires proper PPE

35

immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations

IDHLs - maximal environmental air concentration of a substance from which a person could escape within 30 mins without symptoms of impairment or irreversible health effects

36

ionizing radiation

particles or pure energy that produces changes in matter by creating ion pairs

37

lethal concentration 50 %

LC50 - the air concentration of a substance that kills 50% of the exposed animal population' this denotes the concentration and the length of exposure time that results in 50% fatality in the exposed animal population; also commonly noted as LCt50

38

half-life

the measure of the rate of decay of a radioactive material; indicates the time needed for half of a given amount of a radioactive material to change to another nuclear from or element

39

hazard communication standard

HAZCOM - OSHA standard regarding worker protection when handling chemicals

40

hazardous materials

a substance (solid, liquid, or gas) capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, environment or property

41

Hazardous waste operations and emergency response

HAZWOPER - OSHA and EPA regulations regarding worker safety when responding to hazardous materials emergencies

42

hot zone

the area in which contamination currently exists or area that may be contaminated in a short period; also called the exclusion area. Patients are removed from this area to the warm zone for decontamination. Entrance to the hot zone requires proper PPE

43

immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations

IDHLs - maximal environmental air concentration of a substance from which a person could escape within 30 mins without symptoms of impairment or irreversible health effects

44

ionizing radiation

particles or pure energy that produces changes in matter by creating ion pairs

45

lethal concentration 50 %

LC50 - the air concentration of a substance that kills 50% of the exposed animal population' this denotes the concentration and the length of exposure

46

lethal dose 50%

LD50 - the oral or dermal exposure dose that kills 50% of the exposed animal population in 2 weeks

47

local damage

damage present at the point of chemical contact

48

lower flammable limit

the minimal concentration of fuel in the air that will ignite; below this point too much oxygen and not enough fuel to burn (too lean) are present; also called the lower explosive limit

49

material safety data sheet

MSDS - a document that contains information about the specific identity of a hazardous chemical; information includes exact name and physical properties and emergency telephone numbers

50

melting point

the temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid (ex ice melting to water at 0 C or 32 F)

51

mydriasis

dilation of the pupils

52

mational fire protection association

NFPA - international voluntary membership organization that promotes improved fire protection and prevention and establishes safeguards against loss of life and property by fire; writes and publishes national voluntary consensus standards

53

neutron radiation

penetrating radiation that can result in whole body irradiation

54

olfactory fatigue

desensitization of the sense of smell

55

occupational safety and health administration

OSHA - a unit of the us department of labor that establishes protective standards, enforces those standards, and reaches out to employers and employees through technical assistance and consultation programs

56

oxidation ability

the ability of a substance to readily release oxygen to stimulate combustion

57

permissible exposure limit

allowable air concentration of a substance in the workplace as established by OSHA; these values are legally enforceable

58

personal protective equipment

PPE - clothing and equipment worn to protect against environmental hazards

59

placards

diamond shaped signs placed on the sides and ends of bulk transport containers that carry hazardous materials

60

poisonous

describes gases, liquids, or other substances of such nature that exposure to a very small amount is dangerous to life or is a hazard to health; also know as toxic (cyanide, arsenic, pesticides, phosgene, aniline, methyl bromide, insecticides)

61

pounds per square inch

psi - the amount of pressure on an area that is 1 inch square

62

pyrophorics

substances that form self-ignitable flammable vapors when in contact with air

63

radioactive

the ability to emit ionizing radioactive energy

64

radioactive substances

any material or combination of materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and have a specific activity greater than 0.002 (plutonium, cobalt, uranium 235, radioactive waste)

65

radioactivity

the spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclei accompanied by the emission of nuclear radiation

66

secondary contamination

the risk of another person or healthcare provider becoming contaminated with a hazardous material by contact with a contaminated victim

67

secondary device

an explosive, chemical, or biologic device hidden at the scene of an emergency and set to detonate or release its agent after emergency response personnel are on scene

68

simple asphyxiants

inert gases and vapors that displace oxygen in inspired air (ex carbon dioxide, nitrogen)

69

specific gravity

the ratio of a liquid's weight compared with an equal volume of water (which has a constant value of 1); materials with a specific gravity of less than 1 float on water, and materials with a specific gravity greater than 1 sink

70

systemic damage

damage remote to the site of exposure or absorption

71

threshold limit value

the airborne concentrations of a substance; represents conditions under which nearly all workers are believed to be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse effects. Exposed day after day without adverse effects.

72

tube trailers

trailers that carry multiple cylinders of pressurized gases

73

upper flammable limit

the concentration of fuel in the air above which the vapors cannot be ignited; above this point too much fuel and not enough oxygen are present to burn (too rich) ; also called the upper explosive limit

74

vapor density

the weight of a volume of pure gas compared with the weight of an equal volume of pure dry air (which has a constant value of 1); materials with a vapor density less than 1 are lighter than air and rise when released; materials with a vapor density greater than 1 are heavier than air and sink when released

75

vapor pressure

the pressure exerted by a vapor against the sides of a closed container; a measure of volatility

76

volatility

a measure of how quickly a material passes into the vapor or gas state; the greater the volatility, the greater its rate of evaporation

77

warm zone

area surrounding the hot zone that functions as a safety buffer area, decontamination area, and as an access and egress point to and from the ot zone; also called the contamination reduction zone

78

water reactive materials

materials that violently decompose and or burn vigorously when they come in contact with moisture

79

water solubility

the degree to which a material or its vapors are soluble in water

80

five levels of training are

awareness, operations, technician, specialist, incident commander

81

NFPA levels

level 1 is patient care in cold zone
level 2 is patient care using ppe in warm zone

82

what are the 9 classes of haz materials

explosives, gasses, flammable or combustible liquids, flammable solids, oxidizing substances, poisonous and infectious substances, radioactive, crossive materials, miscellaneous haz materials

83

what are the routes of exposure

inhalation, exposure, injection, skin or eye absorption (inhalation being the quickest and most common route of chemical exposure)

84

CAMEO

computer aided management of emergency operations - allows first responders to assist in the response to chemical emergencies and can be used to access, store, and evaluate information critical for developing emergency plans

85

what is the order of patient care in the warm zone

ABC2DE - airway, breathing, circulation, cervical spine stabilization, decontamination, evaluate for systemic toxicity

86

what are the signs and symptoms seen after exposure to pesticide chemicals

SLUDGEBBM - salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, gastrointestinal distress, emesis, bradycardia, bronchoconstriction, miosis

87

denial criteria into a hot zone include

body temp greater than 99.2, pulse is greater than 110/min, bp is greater than 150/90, RR is greater than 24/min, new onset of: cardiac complaints, respiratory, hypertension, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea