Medical 2 Flashcards Preview

Block 4 test > Medical 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Medical 2 Deck (90):
1

The top layer of skin composed of epidermal cells are called what?

keratinocytes

2

A lesion that has not been altered y scratching, rubbing, scrubbing or other types of trauma is known as what?

Primary skin lesion

3

Is a flat, circumscribed (well defined) discolored lesion that is less than 1 cm in diameter like a freckle is called?

Macule

4

Is an elevated solid lesion usually less than .5 cm in diameter like a wart is called?

Papule

5

An elevated, solid lesion usually greater than .5 cm in diameter that lacks any deep component is called?

Plaque

6

A flat, circumscribed, discolored lesion greater than 1 cm, a large macule or Mongolian spot is called?

Patch

7

An elevated solid lesion in the deep skin or subcutaneous tissues, also called larger or deeper papules are called?

Nodule

8

A firm, rounded flat-topped elevation of skin that is evanescent and pruritic (hive) is known as what?

Wheal

9

An elevated lesion that contains clear fluid and is less than .5cm also known as a water blister is called?

Vesicle

10

A localized, fluid-filled lesion usually greater than .5 cm also known as a blister is called?

Bulla

11

A lesion that contains purulent material also known as acne is called?

Pustule

12

an elevated and circumscribed, walled cavity that contains fluid or purulent material is called?

Cyst

13

a primary lesion that has been altered by scratching, scrubbing, or other types of trauma or caused by a type of injury or insult is known as?

Secondary skin lesion

14

a collection of cellular debris or dried blood or scab is called?

crust

15

is a partial focal loss of epidermis is known as what?

Erosion

16

A full-thickness crater that involves the dermis and epidermis, with loss of the surface epithelium is called?

Ulcer

17

A vertical loss of epidermis and dermis with sharply defined walls is called?

Fissure

18

a linear erosion created by scratching is called?

Exocriation

19

A collection of new connective tissue is called?

Scar

20

There are two common categories of skin cancer, what are they?

Nonmelanoma and malignant melanoma

21

Pressure ulcers are also known as what?

Decubitis

22

Atopic dermatitis and what often are used interchangeably?

Eczema

23

A superficial vesicopustular skin infection that primarily occurs on exposed areas of the face and extremities from scratching infected lesions is called?

Impetigo

24

Tiniea of the Head, scalp

capitas

25

Tinea of the body

corporis

26

Tinea of the groin or genitalia

cruris

27

Tinea of the feet

pedis

28

Tinea of the hands

Manuum

29

Tinea of the fingernails or toenails

Unguium

30

Tinea of the trunk

versicolor

31

A substance that can reverse the adverse effects of a poison

Antidote

32

A substance that can reverse the adverse effects of a venom by binding to it and inactivating it

Antivenin

33

a pesticide that inhibits acetylchoinesterase

Carbamate

34

Substances that decrease the time a poison spends in the GI tract by increasing bowel motility

Cathartics

35

A substance with a pH greater than 7; also known as a base or alkali

caustic

36

A substance that can bind metals; used as an antidote to many heavy metal poisonings

Chelating agent

37

Unique identification number of chemicals, much like a person's Social Security number

Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS) number

38

A substance able to corrode tissue or metal (e.g., acids and bases)

Corrosive

39

The process of removing dangerous substances from the patient; may involve removing substances from the skin and or removing substances from the GI tract

Decontamination

40

Inernalization of more than the safe amount of a medication or drug; often associated with illegal drugs when a user administers too great an amount of substance; may be used to commit suicide

Drug overdose

41

The process of injecting venom into a wound; venomous animals include snakes, insects, and marine creatures

Envenomation

42

A large molecule that performs a biochemical reaction in the cell

Enzyme

43

A method of internal decontamination that involves emptying the stomach contents through an orogastric or nasogastric tube

Gastric lavage

44

A member of a large class of chemicals belonging to the petroleum derivative family; they have a variety of uses, such as solvents, oils, reagents, and fuels

Hydrocarbons

45

Being under the effect of a toxin or drug; common terminology (nonmedical) refers to intoxication as being under the effect of alcohol or illegal drugs

Intoxification

46

The injury seen when skin and cells are dissolved and die; bases (alkalis) commonly cause this injury

Liquefacation necrosis

47

The oxidation of hemoglobin from the ferrous iron to the ferric iron state.

Methemoglobinemia

48

The stinging cells many marine creatures use to envenomate and immobilize prey.

Nematocyst

49

A substance that counteracts the effects of acids or bases; brings the pH of a solution back to 7

Neutralizing agent

50

Desensitization of the sense of smell

olfactory fatigue

51

a pesticide that inhibits acetylcholinesterase

organophosphate

52

The accidental or intentional ingestion of an excess of a substance with the potential for toxicity

Overdose

53

Any substance that can harm the human body also known as a toxin

Poison

54

Any one of a number of large molecules composed of amino acids that form the structural components of cells or carry out biochemical functions

protein

55

A substance converted to a toxin through a biochemical process in the body; would be harmless if not converted

Protoxin

56

The ration of the amount of drug to produce a therapeutic dose compared with the amount of drug that produces a lethal does; a narrow therapeutic window is dangerous because of the greater possibility of undermedicating and the greater possibility of overdosing

Therapeutic index

57

the study of poisons

Toxicology

58

A classification system of toxic syndromes by signs and symptoms

Toxidrome

59

Any substance that can harm the human body; also known as a poison

Toxin

60

The 4 digit number assigned to chemicals during transit by the U.S. DOT; the 2008 Emergency Response Guidebooks lists useful information about these chemicals

UN number

61

The pressure exerted by a vapor against the sides of a closed container; a measure of volatility-high vapor pressure means it is a volatile substance.

Vapor pressure

62

The poison injected by venomous animals such as snakes, insects, and marine creatures

Venom

63

A measure of how quickly a material passes into the vapor or gas state; the greater the volatility, the greater its rate of evaporation

Volatility

64

Chemical release or spill awareness acronym is what?

Recognize, Avoid, Isolate, Notify (RAIN)

65

Chemical database WISER stands for what?

Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders

66

The DOT defines a strong acid or base at what pH?

Strong Acid is less than 2 and Strong base is more than 12.5

67

Ammonium nitrate can cause methemoglobinemia in infants called?

blue baby

68

an agent that kills or impedes a viurs

Antiviral

69

The period after infection during which the disease may be transmitted to another host

Communicable period

70

The interval between the first appearance of symptoms and resolution

Disease period

71

A body's ability to resist a particular disease

Immunity

72

The time between exposure to a disease pathogen and the appearance of the first signs or symptoms

Incubation period

73

Inflammation and swelling of the cornea

Keratitis

74

Period during and after infection in which the disease is no longer transmissable

Latent period

75

Inflammation of the inner brain coverings

Leptomeningitis

76

General feeling of illness without any specific symptoms

Malaise

77

A symptom indicating the onset of a disease

Prodrome

78

The ability of the body to defend itself against disease-causing microorganisms

Resistance

79

Distorted grinning expression caused by involuntary contraction of the facial muscles

Risus sardonicus

80

vulnerability or weakness to a specific pathogen; the opposite of resistance

Susceptibility

81

Repeated, prolonged contraction of muscles, especially of the face and limbs

Tetany

82

A mode of transmission of a disease, typically from an insect or animal

Vector

83

A term used to refer to either the relative pathogenicity or the relative ability to do damage to the host of an infectious agaent

Virulence

84

The period after infection during which the antigen is present but no antibody is detectable

Window phase

85

Successful transmission of disease requires 3 conditions what are they?

virulence (strength of the organism) of the disease or its dose, immune status of the host, and the correct mode of entry

86

Syphilis can affect any organ system and has come to be known as what?

The great imitator

87

What is the second most common STD in the US?

Gonorrhea

88

What is the most common STD in the US?

Chlamydia

89

Chlamydia is the leading cause of preventable _______ worldwide.

Blindness

90

An Act that requires that employers designate a person or officer within the organization to whom exposed employees should report is called?

The Ryan White Act