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Medical Terminology > Chapter 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (73):
1

Arteriole

Small Artery

2

Calciferol

Active form of vitamin D, secreted by the kidney

3

Calyx or Calix

Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis

4

Catheter

Tube for injecting or removing fluid

5

Cortex

Outer region of an organ; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney (cortical means pertaining to the cortex)

6

creatinine

Nitrogenous waste excreted in urine. Creatinine clearance is a measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing (clearing) creatinine from the blood

7

electrolyte

chemical element that carries electrical charge when dissolved in water. Includes potassium and sodium

8

erythropoietin (EPO)

Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of RBCs by bone marrow--Poietin means substance that forms

9

filtration

process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter

10

glomerular capsule

enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus. Also known as Bowman's capsule. Collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus.

11

Glomerulus

tiny ball of capillaries in the kidney

12

hilum

depression in an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.

13

kidney

organs that filter nitrogenous wastes from the blood stream to form urine

14

meatus

opening or canal

15

medulla

inner region of an organ. The renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney.

16

nephron

combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney. There are about 1 million nephrons in each kidney.

17

nitrogenous waste

substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine. Examples include urea, uric acid, creatinine

18

potassium (K)

electrolyte regulated by the kidney to maintain proper concentration is maintained within blood.

19

reabsorption

process whereby renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream

20

renal artery

blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney

21

renal pelvis

central collecting region in the kidney

22

renal tubule

microscopic tube in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration

23

renal vein

blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart

24

renin

hormone secreted by kidney to raise blood pressure

25

sodium

electrolyte needed for proper transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity and other metabolic functions

26

trigone

triangular area inside the urinary bladder

27

urea

major nitrogenous waste excreted in urine

28

ureter

tube leading from kidney to bladder

29

urethra

tube from bladder to outside the body

30

uric acid

nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine

31

urinary bladder

hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine

32

urination

also called micturition

33

cali/o, calic/o

calyx; cup-shaped

34

cyst/o

urinary bladder

35

glomerul/o

glomerulus

36

meat/o

meatus

37

nephr/o

kidney

38

pyel/o

renal pelvis

39

ren/o

kidney

40

trigon/o

trigone

41

ureter/o

ureter

42

urethr/o

urethra

43

vesic/o

urinary bladder

44

albumin/o

alnumin (protein in the blood)

45

azot/o

nitrogen

46

bacteri/o

bacteria

47

dips/o

thirst

48

kal/o

potassium

49

ket/o, keton/o

ketone bodies

50

lith/o

stone

51

natr/o

sodium

52

noct/o

night

53

olig/o

scanty

54

poietin

substance that forms

55

py/o

pus

56

-tripsy

crushing

57

ur/o

urine (urea)

58

urin/o

urine

59

-uria

urination; urine condition

60

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Rare condition: baby is born unable to break down amino acid, phenylalanine that can cause mental retardation. If detected at birth, baby is put on low protein diet until adulthood.

61

glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney

62

interstitial nephritis

inflammation of the connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules

63

nephrolithiasis

kidney stones

64

nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis)

group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine

65

polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

multiple fluid filled sacs within and on the kidney

66

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma

67

renal cell carinoma

cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood

68

renal failure

decrease in excretion of wastes results from impaired filtration function

69

renal hypertension

high blood pressure resulting from kidney disease

70

wilms tumor

malignant tumor of the kidney occuring in childhood

71

bladder cancer

malignant tumor of the urinary bladder

72

diabetes insipidus (DI)

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is not secreted, or there is a resistance of the kidney to ADH

73

diabetes mellitus (DM)

insulin is not secreted adequately or tissues are resistant to its effects.