Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (81):
1

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells

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afferent nerve

carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerves). Afferent-towards,

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arachnoid membrane

middle layer or the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord

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astrocyte

type of glial cell (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries

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autonomic nervous system

nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands and internal organs

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axon

microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell

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blood-brain barrier

protective separation between blood and brain cells. This makes it difficult such a anticancer drugs to enter brain

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brainstem

posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons and medulla oblongata

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cauda equina

collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

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cell body

part of the nerve cell that contains the nucleus

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CNS

brain and spinal cord

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cerebellum

posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.

13

Cerebral Cortex

Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain

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CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid--circulates through the brain and spinal cord

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cerebrum

largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscle activity, vision, taste, hearing, thought, and memory

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cranial nerves

Twelve paths of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)

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dendrite

Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part of receive the nervous impulse.

18

dura mater

Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord. "hard mother"

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efferent nerve

carries messages AWAY from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve. Efferent-meaning carry AWAY

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ependymal cell

Glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid.

21

ganglion

collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.

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glial cell

Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses. Astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes. Glial cells can reproduce themselves, as opposed to neurons

23

gyrus

sheet of nerve cells that produce a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution

24

hypothalamus

Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus. Controls sleep, appetite, body temp, and secretions from the pituitary gland

25

medulla oblongata

Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; verve fibers cross over here.

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Meninges

Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord

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microglial cells

phagocytic glial cells that remove waste products from the CNS

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motor nerve

Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs

29

Myelin sheath

Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cells. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons.

30

Nerve

macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.

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neuron

Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system.

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neurotransmitter

chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates of inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples: Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin

33

oligodendroglial cell

Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodentrocyte

34

parasympathetic nerves

involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such a heart rate, breathing, and smooth muscles.

35

parenchyma

Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. (neurons, nephrons, hepatocytes, ect)

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peripheral nervous system

Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord: cranial, spinal and autonomic nerves.

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pia mater

Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.

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plexus

Large, interlacing network of nerves. (lumbosacral, cervical, brachial)

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pons

part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum. A bridge connecting different parts of the brain.

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receptor

Organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. The skin, ears, and taste buds are receptors.

41

sciatic nerve

Nerve extending from the base of the spring down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of a nerve.

42

Sensory nerve

carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve

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spinal nerves

31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord

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stimulus

Agent of change in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.

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Stroma

Connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain

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sulcus

Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex. fissure

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sympathetic nerves

Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntary in times of stress.

48

synapse

Space through which nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between muscle or nerve and gland cells. (point of contact)

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thalamus

main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.

50

vagus nerve

10th cranial nerve ; branches reach the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach.

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ventricles of the brain

canals int he brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Ventricles are also found in the heart. They are the two lower chambers of the heart

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dur/o

dura mater

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lept/o

thin, slender

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myel/o

spinal cord

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neur/o

nerve

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pont/o

pons

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radicul/o

nerve root

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thalam/o

thalamus

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thec/o

sheath

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alges/o, algesia

excessive sensitivity to pain

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-algia

pain

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caus/o

burning

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comat/o

deep sleep (coma)

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esthesi/o, -esthesia

feeling, nervous sensation

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kines/o

movement

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-lepsy

seizure

67

lex/o

word, phrase

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paresis

weakness

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-phasia

speech

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-plegia

paralysis

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-praxia

action

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-sthenia

strength

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syncop/o

to cut off, cut short

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tax/o

order, coordination

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hydrocephalus

abnormal accumulation of fluid (CSF) in the brain

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spina bifida

congenital defects int he lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect)

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amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem

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myasthenia gravis

autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles.

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palsy

paralysis

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herpes zoster (shingles)

viral infection affecting peripheral nerves

81

meningitits

inflammation of the meninges