Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (81):
neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerves). Afferent-towards,
middle layer or the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord
type of glial cell (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
autonomic nervous system
nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands and internal organs
microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
protective separation between blood and brain cells. This makes it difficult such a anticancer drugs to enter brain
posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons and medulla oblongata
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
part of the nerve cell that contains the nucleus
brain and spinal cord
posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
Cerebrospinal fluid--circulates through the brain and spinal cord
largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscle activity, vision, taste, hearing, thought, and memory
Twelve paths of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part of receive the nervous impulse.
Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord. "hard mother"
carries messages AWAY from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve. Efferent-meaning carry AWAY
Glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid.
collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses. Astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, oligodendrocytes. Glial cells can reproduce themselves, as opposed to neurons
sheet of nerve cells that produce a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus. Controls sleep, appetite, body temp, and secretions from the pituitary gland
Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; verve fibers cross over here.
Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord
phagocytic glial cells that remove waste products from the CNS
Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs
Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cells. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons.
macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.
Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system.
chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates of inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples: Acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin
Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodentrocyte
involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such a heart rate, breathing, and smooth muscles.
Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. (neurons, nephrons, hepatocytes, ect)
peripheral nervous system
Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord: cranial, spinal and autonomic nerves.
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
Large, interlacing network of nerves. (lumbosacral, cervical, brachial)
part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum. A bridge connecting different parts of the brain.
Organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. The skin, ears, and taste buds are receptors.
Nerve extending from the base of the spring down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of a nerve.
carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
Agent of change in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
Connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain
Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex. fissure
Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntary in times of stress.
Space through which nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between muscle or nerve and gland cells. (point of contact)
main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.
10th cranial nerve ; branches reach the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach.
ventricles of the brain
canals int he brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Ventricles are also found in the heart. They are the two lower chambers of the heart
excessive sensitivity to pain
deep sleep (coma)
feeling, nervous sensation
to cut off, cut short
abnormal accumulation of fluid (CSF) in the brain
congenital defects int he lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem
autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles.
herpes zoster (shingles)
viral infection affecting peripheral nerves