Chapter 7: Attention and Scene Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Attention and Scene Perception Deck (30):
1

Attention

Any of the very large set of selective processes in the brain. To deal with the impossibility of handling all inputs at once, the nervous system has evolved mechanisms that are able to restrict processing to a subset of things, places, ideas, or moment in time.

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selective attention

The form of attention involved when processing is restricted to a subset of the possible stimuli.

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reaction time (RT)

A measure of the time from the onset of a stimulus to a response.

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Cue

A stimulus that might indicate where (or what) a subsequent stimulus will be. Cues can be valid (giving correct info), invalid (incorrect), or neutral (uninformative).

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Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA)

The time between the onset of one stimulus and the onset of another.

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visual search

Search for a target in a display containing distracting elements.

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target

The goal of the visual search

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distractor

In visual search, any stimulus other than the target

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set size

The # of items in a visual display.

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feature search

Search for a target defined by a single attribute, such a s a salient color or orientation.

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Salience

The vividness of a stimulus relative to its neighbors

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Parallel search

A search in which multiple stimuli are processed at the same time.

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serial self-terminating search

A search from item to item, ending when a target is found.

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guided search

Search in which attention can be restricted to a subset of possible items on the basis of information about the target item's basic features.

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Conjunction search

Search for a target defines by the presence of two or more attributes

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scene-based guidance

Info in our understanding of scenes that helps us find specific objects in scenes

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binding problem

The challenge of tying different attributes of visual stimuli which are handled different brain circuits, to the appropriate object so that we perceive a unified object.

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preattentive stage

The processing of a stimulus that occurs before selective attention is deployed to that stimulus.

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feature integration theory

Anne Treisman's theory of visual attention, which holds that a limited set of basic features can be processed in parallel preattentivley, but that other properties, including the correct binding of feature to objects, require attention.

20

illusory conjunction

An erroneous combination of two features in a visual scene.

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Proto-object

A loose collection of unbound features that will be a recognizable object one attended.

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rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP)

An experimental procedure in which stimuli appear in a stream at one location (typically the point of fixation) at a rapid rate (typically about 8 per second).

23

attentional blink

The tendency not to perceive or respond to the second of two different target stimuli amid a rapid stream of distracting stimuli if the observer has responded to the first target stimulus within 200-500 milliseconds before the second stimulus is presented.

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repetition blindness

A failure to detect the second occurrence of an identical letter, word, or picture in a rapidly presented stream of stimuli when the second occurrence falls within 200-500 milliseconds of the first.

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FFA

faces

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PPA

images of places than other stimuli

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response enhancement

an effect of attention on the response of a neuron in which the neuron responding to an attended stimulus gives a bigger response.

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Sharper tuning

An effect of attention on the response of a neuron in which the neuron responding to an attended stimulus responds more precisely.

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change blindness

The failure to notice a change between two scenes. if the gist of the scene is not altered, quite large changes can pass unnoticed.

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inattentional blindness

A failure to notice - or at least to report - a stimulus that would be easily reportable if it were attended.