Chapter 8: Motion Perception Flashcards Preview

Sensation and Perception > Chapter 8: Motion Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8: Motion Perception Deck (26):
1

motion aftereffect (MAE)

The illusion of motion of a stationary object that occurs after prolonged exposure to a moving object.

2

apparent motion

The illusory impression of a smooth motion resulting from the rapid alternation of objects that appear in different locations in rapid succession.

3

correspondence problem

In motion detection the problem faced by the motion detection system of knowing which feature in frame 2 corresponds to a particular feature in frame 1.

4

aperture problem

The fact that when a moving object is viewed through an aperture (or a receptive field), the direction of motion of a local feature or part of the object may be ambiguous.

5

aperture

An opening that allows only a partial view of an object.

6

middle temporal area (MT)

An area of the brain thought to be important in the perception of motion.

7

interocular transfer

The transfer of an effect (such as adaptation) from one eye to the other.

8

first-order motion

the motion of an object that i defines by changed in luminance.

9

luminance-defined object

AN object that is delineated by changes in luminance.

10

second-order motion

The motion of an object that is defined by changes in contrast or texture, but not by luminance.

11

texture-defined (contrast-defined) object

An object that is defined by changes in contrast, or texture, but not by luminance.

12

optic array

the collection of light rays that interact with objects in the world that are in front of a viewer

13

optic flow

the changing angular positions of points in a perspective image that we experience as we move through the world.

14

focus of expansion

The point in the center of the horizon from which, when we're in motion, all points in the perspective image seem to emanate. The focus of expansion is one aspect of optic flow.

15

biological motion

The pattern of movement of living beings

16

time to collision (TTC)

The time required for a moving object to hit a stationary object. TTC = distance/rate.

17

tau

Information in the optic flow that could signal TTC without the necessity of estimating either absolute distances or rates. The ratio of the retinal image size at any moment to the rate at which the image is expanding is tau, and TTC is proportional to tau.

18

smooth pursuit

a type of voluntary eye movement in which the eyes move smoothly to follow a moving object.

19

superior colliculus

A structure in the midbrain that is important in initiating and guiding eye movements.

20

microsaccade

An involuntary, small, jerklike eye movement.

21

vergence

A type of eye movement in which the two eyes move in opposite directions; for example, both eyes turn toward the nose (convergence) or away from the nose (divergence)

22

saccade

A type of eye movement, made both voluntarily and involuntarily, in which the yes rapidly change fixation from one object or location to another.

23

reflexive eye movement

A movement of the eye that is automatic and involuntary.

24

saccadic suppression

The reduction of visual sensitivity that occurs when we make saccadic eye movements. Saccadic suppression eliminates the smear from retinal image motion during an eye movement.

25

comparator

An area of the visual system that receives one copy of the command issued by the motor system when the eyes move (the other copy goes to the eye muscles). The comparator compares the image motion signal with the ye motion signal and can compensate for the image changes caused by the eye movement.

26

akinetopsia

A rare psychological disorder in which the affected individual has no perception of motion.