Flashcards in Chapter 2: The First Steps in Vision: From Light to Neural Signals. V1 Deck (62):
An oscillation that travels through a medium by transferring energy from one particle or point to another without causing any permanents displace of the medium.
A quantum of visible light or other form of electromagnetic radiation demonstrating both particle and wave properties.
To take up energy and not transmit it at all
To disperse light in an irregular fashion.
To redirect something that strikes a surface back towards point of origin
To convey something from one place to another
1. To alter the course of a wave of energy that passes into something from another medium, as water does to light entering it from the air.
2. To measure the degree of refraction in a lens/eye.
Transparent window into eyeball
Allowing light to pass through with no interruption, so that objects on the other side can be clearly seen.
Watery fluid in anterior chamber of eye.
Lens inside eye that enables changing of focus
Dark, circular opening at the center of the iris in the eye, where light enters the eye.
Colored part of eye, consisting of muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil.
Transparent Fluid that fills the vitreous chamber in the posterior part of eye.
A light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye that contains rods and cones, which receive an image from the lens and send it to the brain through the optic nerve.
The process by which the eye changes its focus (in which the lens gets fatter as gaze is directed toward nearer objects).
Old sight. Loss of near vision because of insufficient accommodation.
An opacity of the crystalline lens.
No refractive error because power of eye is perfectly matched to length of eyeball.
Nearsightedness, light entering eye is focused in front of retina and distant objects cannot be seen sharply.
Farsightedness, light entering eye is focused behind the reitna and accommodation is required in order to see near objects clearly.
Visual defect caused by unequal curving of one or more of the refractive surfaces of the eye, usually cornea.
To convert from one form of energy to aother
Back layer of retina, what eye doctor sees though scope.
A light-sensitive receptor in the retina.
Photoreceptor specialized for night vision.
Photoreceptor specialized for daylight vision, fine visual acuity, and color.
In reference to retina, consisting of two parts: Rods/cones.
The part of photoreceptor that contains photopigment molecules.
The part of photoreceptor that lies between the outer segment and the cell nucleus.
The location where axons terminate at the synapse for transmission of information by the release of a chemical neurotransmitter.
Light catching part of visual pigments of the retina.
Visual pigments found in rods.
A photopigment that is sensitive to ambient light.
Activation by light.
Increase in membrane potential such that the inner membrane surface becomes more negetive than the outer membrane surface.
Electrical Potential that can vary continuously in amplitude.
The distance between retinal image and the fovea.
Aging-related macular degeneration (AMD)
A disease associated with aging that affects the macula. Destroys sharp central vision. Wet and dry forms.
Central part of retina that has a high concentration of cones.
A small pit, near center of the macula, that contains the highest concentration of cones, no rods. It is the portion of the retina that produces highest visual acuity and serves as the point of fixation.
A blind spot in visual field.
A specialized retinal cell that contacts both photoreceptor and bipolar cells.
Antagonesitic neural interaction between adjacent regions of the retina.
A retinal cell found in the inner synaptic layer that makes synaptic contacts with bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and other amacrine cells.
A retianl cell that synapses with rods/cones (not both) and with horizontal cells, and then passes signals to ganglion cells
Diffuse bipolar cell
A bipolar retinal cell whose processes are spread out to receive input from multiple cones.
1. Ability to perceive via sense organs.
A measure of the finest detail that can be resolved by the eyes.
Midget Bipolar Cell
A small bipolar cell in the central retina that receives input from a single cone.
ON bipolar cell
A bipolar cell that responds to an increase in light captured by the cones.
OFF bipolar cell
A bipolar cell that responds to a decrease in light captured by the cones.
A retinal cell that receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types (bipolar cells and amacrine cells) and transmits info to the brain and midbrain.
P ganglion cell
A small ganglion cell that receives excitatory input from the single midget bipolar cells in the central retina and feeds the parvocellular layer of the later genicualte nucleus.
M ganglion cell
A ganglion cell resembling a little umbrella that receives excitatory input from diffuse bipolar cells and feeds the magnocellular layer of the lateral geniculate nucleus.
A neuron located between the magnocellular and parvocellular layers of the later geniculate nucleus. Layer is known as koniocellular layer.
The region on the retina in which visual stimuli influence a neurons's firing rate.
A cell that depolarizes in response to an increase in light intensity in its receptive-field center.
A cell that depolarizes in response to a decrease in light intensity in its receptive-field center.
Allows passage of some and restricts others
Difference in luminance between an object and the background or between lighter and darker parts of same object.