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Flashcards in Chapter 7- Textbook Deck (104):

What is mass communication?

The transmission of messages by a person or group through a device to a large audience


What is mass media

devises designed to communicate messages to a mass audience


When and how did our human ancestors first begin to community their ideas and emotions?

using paintings and engravings on cave walls during theUpper Palaeolithic era


What are cuneiform?

an early form of wedge-shaped writing developed by the ancient Sumerians


What are hieroglyphics?

an early form of visual communication developed by the Egyptians


What is papyrus?

an early form of writing paper developed by the Egyptians that enabled written messages to be transported across great distances


What is the phonetic alphabet?

a system of writing developed by early Greeks that uses letters to represent spoken sounds, enabling the expression of complex ideas


What is the earliest printing process? Describe. When and where was it developed?

Block Printing
A process in which wooden blocks are engraved with images and text, inked, and then pressed onto paper
-China during the tang dynasty


What was the revolutionary form of mass media invented by Johannes Gutenberg that had a tremendous impact on human social development?

Printing press-movable type


What is movable type?

Gutenberg's invention that allowed individual letters of images to be moved without influencing the surrounding text


How did the printing press transform human society?

-first major applications of mass production
-interchangeable parts constituted one of the earliest instances of a technique that would become instrumental to the industrial Revolution
-by making copied of documents available, people outside of the upper class were motivated to learn to read
-massive increase in literacy levels across Europe


What emerged after the printing press?



What emerged after the newspaper?



Why were telegraphs efficient?

they were more timely then sending printed documents across the country by train


What ushered in sound?

Thomas Edison's invention of the phonograph


What was the key development of the radio over earlier technology?

it did not require wires and allowed a single signal to be transmitted to anyone with a receiver


What has television become?

an integral part of the world's social, political, and economic landscape. Free technological developments have had such a profound influence the social fabric of our lives


How did the internet begin?

in 1967 as the American Department of Defence had a contract to design a computer network to act as a vehicle for communication that would be impervious to a nuclear strike


What is web 2.0?

Interactive online tools dedicated to promoting a greater sense of community


What new new technologies enable consumers to do?

pull content that reflects their particular and unique interests whenever they want


What percent of Canadian households had internet access in 2013?



What is the enabling technology for many new online media forms often referred to? What does it represent?

-Web 2.0
-Represents a significant evolution over earlier technologies in that it encourages a more interactivity among users, and results in both a deeper learning and a better potential to build online communities


What is important about satellite television?

-expanding and flourishing industry
-people can watch what they want, when they want


In 2002, the number of people with cellphones surpassed the number with fixed___.

-phone lines


What is the dominant form of voice technology?



What has the cellphone become?

part of a user's personal sphere of objects, much like a wallet and keys


What is digital sociality?

A social landscape in which new communication technologies are promoting human interaction and contact


What are cellphones criticized?

-contributing to poor spelling and grammar
-demise of face to face relations
-brain cancer


What is becoming the most common form of mobile communication among young people?

text messaging


How many text messages will be sent worldwide each day?

more than 50 billion (in 2014 was the estimate)


What is twitter?

a real-time information network connecting people to the latest information they find interesting
-potential to galvanize public resistance to political issues


What is a blog?

an online diary in which an individual posts personal reflections on events, specific topics, and/or experiences


The number of blogs on the internet grew from__million in 2007 to___million in 2010.



What is RSS (Really Simple Syndication)?

A web feed format that informs subscribers of new information posted on online services


What is the blog's principle attraction?

ability to present one's ideas to a global audience and invite a dialogue which may take on the characteristics of an online global community


What is the world's most popular blog?

the Huffington post


What do critics of online communities say?

that those who read blogs generally only read those that confirm their already held beliefs--the echo chamber effect


What is the mass media's targeting of a smaller segment of the audience a process known as?



What is demassification?

a process by which the mass audience is fragmented into small groups or niches to appeal to unique interests. They use these as a basis to develop specific content


What is a wiki?

an online body of information to which anyone can add or modify content


What is the best known wiki today?

the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia


What do wikis allow everyone to participate as?

a community that is nonhierarchical and non regulated


What is youtube an example of?

how young people are attracted to new media forms that allow them to control their media experience
-example of how technology is transforming the individual's relationship to the social


What is the best example of how Web 2.0 technology can link people?

the social networking sites


What is Harold Innis' key insight?

Every society needs to transcend what he called the problems of space and time; all societies that are able to solve these problems do so through communication


What did Innis believe that civilizations are shaped by?

Whatever media are most pervasive in their cultures


What is time-biased media?

Media that have longevity but whose form prevents their transmission over physical distance (e.g., cave art, hieroglyphics)


What can time-biased media transcend? How?

-time by linking one generation to the next


What did Innis associate time-biased media with?

traditional hierarchies


Do time biased media facilitate and encourage the distribution of a common message across large areas?



What are space-biased media?

media that can convey messages readily over physical distance


What did space-biased media allow to emerge?

-empires because military orders, laws, directions, and information bulletins could be sent over great distances


What did Innis believe societies were influenced by?

their dominant forms of communication


Why does Marshall Mcluhan believe the reason is for studying media?

to make visible what was invidisble--to go beyond the actual material transmitted by media and uncover the underlying message


What does McLuhan believe is most important?

the medium itself


According to McLuhan, why is the medium important?

-influences the mind in unconscious ways
-not the message (which appeals to the conscious mind) but the way that it is conveyed (which appeals to the unconscious mind)


What concerned McLuhan?

We often focus on the obvious and that when we do we miss important and subtle changes that occur over time


What is McLuhan's key insight?

the manner in which people communicate shapes not only the society in which they live but how they interact within it


How did McLuhan propose media could be classified

hot or cool used on the nature of their content as well as the degree of attention required by their audience


What is hot media?

Media that contains great deal of information but involve only a single sensory organ and demand very little from their audience (e.g., newspaper)


What is cool media?

Media that convey less information and require more participation from their audience (e.g., seminars)


What is CanCon (Canadian content)?

Federal regulations that stipulate the required percentage of Canadian content in television and radio broadcasts


Why do we have CanCon?

because Canadian media are greatly influenced by their close proximity to the US. We need to preserve Canadian culture


What is the MAPL system?

CRTC requirements used to determine whether a piece of music qualifies as Canadian content


What are the CanCon regulations?

1. Providing a wide range of programming that reflects Canadian attitudes, opinions, ideas, values, and artistic creativity;
2. Displaying Canadian talent in entertainment programming;
3. Offering information and analysis concerning Canada and other countries from a Canadian point of view


How can a piece of music qualify as Canadian content?

it must fulfill at least two of the four criteria of the MAPL system


What are the 4 criteria of the MAPL system?

1. the music (M) is composed by a Canadian
2. the artist (A) who performs the music is Canadian
3. the production (P) of the music occurred in Canada (that is, the music was recorded in Canada) or the music is performed in Canada and broadcast in Canada
4. the lyrics (L) are written by a Canadian


What percent of content a radio plays must be Canadian?



For a television program to qualify as Canadian, it must meet all three of the following criteria. List please.

1. the producer is Canadian
2. key creative personnel are Canadian
3. 75% of service costs and postproduction lab costs are paid to Canadians


Television stations and networks and ethnic television stations must achieve nan annual Canadian content level of: ?

-60% overall, measured during the day
-50%, measured during the evening broadcast period


CBC must ensure that at least__percent of its programming is Canadian.



Why do many Canadians believe that CanCon regulations are unreasonable and intrusive with respect to consumers

-they should be able to make their own entertainment choices without government intervention or supports
-requiring a defined level of Canadian content ensures mediocrity
-concern that radio and television stations will overplay popular Canadian songs or programs tin an attempt to meet their quotas


How does functionalism view mass media?

As providing a unique and powerful ability to promote common values and beliefs


What are the four primary areas in which mass media contribute to society according to functionalism?

socialization, surveillance, correlation, and entertainment


What is the socialization function?

media's role in transmitting beliefs, values, and traditions from one generation to the next
-by reinforcing certain messages, mass media effectively promote social integration and the formation of a common cultural identity
-fail to recognize minority groups, only promote dominant voice


What is the surveillance function?

Media's role in fathering and disseminating information to the population. Allows members of society to focus on their own activities and interests.
-however, more and more people are turning to alternative media to get news and information as opposed to traditional media


What is the correlation function?

Media's role in filtering and making comprehensible the huge daily volume of news stories and issues
-so people can understand
-filter through which information passes before reaching us (check on surveillance function)


What is the entertainment function?

Media's role in helping people rest, relax, and escape the pressures of everyday life
-may distract people from important events


What is mass media according to conflict theory?

Mass media are vehicles used by the rich and powerful to control the masses and to reinforce their false consciousness
-legitimacy and exposure to certain views over others
-influence our perceptions of events through their use of negative and positive labelling
-reflects the dominant classes' ideology


What do conflict theorists argue about mass media?

taken collectively, media messages influence our perception of our social environment to promote corporate interests and perpetuate class differences


What are the two forms of filtering conflict theory believes that manipulating the media has?

1) deciding not to cover a story
2) presenting a story in such a way as to diffuse or bias its content


What do Herman and Chomsky (conflict theory) suggest is the primary role of mainstream media? What is this referred to?

-to ensure popular support for the economic, social, and political agenda of the privileged classes
-propaganda model


What is the propaganda model?

the assertion that media companies, as businesses, will transmit content that reflects their commercial interests


How does symbolic interactionism view mass media?

-as an important part of contemporary life, but one that is no more important than any other
-rejects all forms of determinism and therefore views media as part of a complex and multifaceted process in which meaning is defined and granted by those involved in the interaction


What are symbolic interactionists interested in with mass media?

Exploring how media influences our perceptions of our social world


What do symbolic interactionists believe about mass media?

-that people do not internalize media images passively but, rather, are actively involved in a dynamic process that views media images and messages
-media help to form identities by presenting images and situations that reinforce our cultural ideal son what makes people happy or successful


What is e-audience?

those who use electronic communication technologies


What is the defining feature of the e-audience?

the perception of control and sense of entitlement that comes from being able to communicate whoever they want


How does feminist theory view mass media?

critique of mass media
-patriarchal nature (use of images of women in advertising)
-critique media portrayals as they related to the reality of women's lived experiences


What does Gaye Tuchman refer to? Meaning?

"symbolic annihilation of women"
-media ignore, exclude, and marginalize women and their interests


What is an issue that feminists see with mass media?



What are the two strategies to diminish the effects of pornography on society according to feminist theory?

1) a human rights approach
2) educating the public about the effects of pornography on society as a whole


What is misogyny?

the hatred or deep dislike of women


How does post-structuralism view mass media according to Jean Baudrillard?

Postmodern societies focus on simulation nd the creation and interplay of images thet determine how people see themselves and others


What did Baudrillar'd analysis of media centre on?

simulation and hyperreality


What is simulation?

Baudrillard's assertion that media create a "simulated" world through the reinforcement of certain images and signs


What is hyperreal?

Baudrillard's belief that people's perceptions, as defined by media, lead to the sense of a simulate reality. Media do not represent social life as it truly exists but, rather, how it is manufactured.


What did Baudrillard suggest about how perceive reality?

Did not suggest that what we perceive as reality is simply an illusion; instead, he argue that the illusion has become the reality


What is the homogenization culture?

media is making our cultures less complex and more alike with globalization; cultural diversity will decline


What is intent addiction?

People are becoming addicted to the internet; can suffer withdrawal symptoms when they do not have internet access


What is cybriety?

Tremblay's term describing attempts to censor new media content that pushes the boundaries of morality


What is internet pornography as it pertains to the future of mass media?

Tony Tremblay argues that all new media begin by pushing the social boundaries of morality because they offer new avenues for people to explore their sexuality. However, all technology will ultimately fails as it cannot fulfill the human need for companionship and physical contact


What is increased mobility and access to information?

the technology of the future will provide people with even greater ability to move wherever they like and remain connected to their friends, family, work, and school in ways that will continue to break down geographic barriers


What is democratic potential and potential to build online communities?

-New media technologies are enabling people to capture and post images to the Internet that could challenge existing power structures and lead to progressive social change
-Web 2.0 technologies and social software have tremendous potential to bring people together and provide a sense of community