Flashcards in Chapter 5- Lecture Deck (107):
What is social stratification?
Society's hierarchical ranking of people into social classes
What is a social class?
A group of individuals who share a position in a social hierarchy, based on both birth and achievements.
Is a social class a sociological concept or identity?
Do those in the same social class have to know each other?
What is social status? Is it groups or individual?
Position within the class structure
What are the four principles of social stratification?
2. Relatively stable (some social mobility)
3. Varies in how it presents itself
4. Fair and just
What is meritocracy?
a system of rewards based on personal attributes and demonstrated abilities
-all societies redistribute materials and social rewards to individuals
What are some examples of meritocracy?
Ex. we all have examples--based on how you perform, not based on gender, etc. (grades).
-Ex. Canadian society: dentists and physicians have great talents which results in higher salaries.
What is social mobility?
Movement between social classes
What are the two measure of social mobility? Explain each and give and example.
Intergenerational mobility: comparing adult children's status to that of their parents. Ex. mother is a worker in Saskatoon transit, daughter is a university professor.
Intragenerational mobility: comparing an individuals status position over his or her lifetime. ex. some one who was a truck driver for 3 years is not a university professor.
What does it mean when social stratification varies in how it presents itself?
income vs prestige
Ex. professor may make $5000 per month and a drug dealer may make $5000 per month
How is social stratification fair and just? Example?
-accepted by the majority
-grounded in dominant ideology
Example: different occupations have different prestige
Are social rewards always allocated equally?
When does social inequality exist?
when certain attributes affect a person's access to socially valued resources
What attributes contribute to social inequality?
gender, minority status, class, etc.
What is social inequality supported by?
the dominant ideology rather than individual capability
How is social stratification fair?
because it is accepted by the majority.
Is social inequality hard or easy to detect? Why?
difficult to detect and challenge because it hides behind ideologies that name the processes associated with their perpetuation as "normal" and "just" and their harmful consequences as being the fault of the disadvantaged.
Is the view on whether a person can actually perform a particular job subjective or objective? Example?
Subjective, no material influence.
Ex. social workers and public school teachers are usually female; CEOs are usually male
What is classism?
An ideology the suggests that people's relative worth is at least partly determined by their social and economic status.
What are the two types of classism?
blaming the victim ad blaming the system
What is legitimate economic inequality?
the wealthy deserve what they have and the poor are responsible for their failure
What is blaming the victim?
-working harder will alleviate poverty
What is blaming the system?
A perspective that holds that systemic discrimination exists within the social system. Has to do with deindustrialization
What is deindustrialization?
the transformation of an economy from one based on manufacturing to one base don services
What is the dilemma for anti-poverty programs?
Should you provide compensation which encourages laziness? Should you provide compensation for people that challenges policy?
What are the two ways that social systems rank people?
closed systems and open systems.
What are closed systems based on?
In a closed system, is their room for social mobility?
very little room
What is a caste system? Ex?
determines what people can wear, what jobs they can perform, and who they can marry
ex. India and Japan
Membership in a caste system in___.
What is an example of a caste system?
Parents work for a company, you work for the same company, you get a promotion because of who your parents are if they have a higher position.
What is an open system based on?
What is an open system the result of?
One's own merit within the class structure
What is social economic status?
income, occupational prestige, and education
What kind of system is Canada?
What is an example of an open system (not a country though)
drug dealers and professors can make the same wage, but they have very different prestiges.
What are the two components of inequality?
property and occupational prestige
What is property an important indicator of?
an important indicator wf where one fits s into the class structure
What are the two measures of property? Explain?
Income: is defined as the money one receives annually (what you make per month, year, etc.)
Wealth: is defined as one's new accumulated assets (all that the income buys for you --> your assets).
What is occupational prestige?
The social values of an occupation.
what are the different sociological approaches to stratification?
Functionalism, Conflict theory, symbolic interactionism, feminist theory
What is the davis-moore thesis (1945) functionalism?
-Social inequality serves important social function: instills desire to fill certain social positions and instills the desire to complete duties and obligations.
What must rewards be high in the davis-moore thesis
to attract the most capable and skilled
What are the criticisms of functionalism?
-social status is often hereditary
-low salaries for socially important but female dominated occupations
-market forces (salary not based on the worker's valueO
What is conflict theory?
social classes are a manifestation of competition between the haves and the have-nots.
what three things did Karl Marx believe?
-interest of social classes incompatible
-proletariat need to overthrow bourgeoisie
-social stratification is embodiment of class conflict
What three things did Max Weber believe? (Why did he critique Marx)?
-Critiques Marx's sole focus on economic production
-Social class is multidimensional
-Class,status groups, and party
Whose analysis is close to what we recognize today?
What is symbolic interactionism interested in? What do they consider?
-More interested in looking at how people interpret and construct their responses to class inequality than in attempting to explain why stratification exists.
-Consider how people use and respond to status symbols
What are status symbols? Ex?
Status symbols are material indicators that demonstrate a person's social and economic position
Ex. Starbucks coffee vs milk tea in china.
Starbucks is a status symbols because it is more expensive
Who was one of the pioneers in the study of status symbols?
What 3 things did Veblen contribute?
What is conspicuous consumption? Ex?
the purchase of expensive goods simply because they are valuable, not because there is any innate satisfaction in them.
Ex. brand name clothes
What is conspicuous leisure? Ex?
the demonstration one' high social status through forms of leisure
What is conspicuous waste? Ex?
the disposal of valuable goods to demonstrate wealth.
Ex. throwing away valuable goods, taking"last season's " clothes to salvation army just because they are "old". You make yourself feel good about consumerism.
What are the three ways that people communicate their wealth to others/
1) conspicuous waste
2) conspicuous consumption
3) conspicuous leisure
Who suggests that people want to be seen s living one class strata higher above where they actually live?
What does Scott (2007) argue about credit cards?
That they have changed people's ability to reach, or at least appear the reach, the next higher level.
What is an example of a non-material indicator of social classes?
people's accent in Great Britain
What is feminist theory
society's evauabltion of what is deemed valuable and important has been perpetuated by patriarchal assumptions
What are the two investigations for social inequality acc. to feminist theory?
-recognize the working lives of women within capitalism
-role of class position in determining one's view of the world
What is Armstrong and Armstrong's concept of the double ghetto?
women's dual roles, work inside and outside of the home
How do men maintain a superior social position over the women in their lives?
men, as a group, own most of the social wealth
Why are women in a subordinate position both inside and outside the home?
-women are dependents of their husbands if all women are just housewives
Feminists view ___ ___ as one of the primary locations for struggle within society, and believe that this is where most people form important___and life___that help to___who they are.
What is an example of feminist theory and social class?
-New Zealand advertising
-white men dominated in advertisement for financial corporate/legal services and were over represented as professional white collars
What is an example of how feminists view what goes on inside the home to be important in terms of double ghetto (replicating the pattern)?
-as you grew up, you watched your parents and saw the pattern of work
-idea is you will go forward and replicate this pattern
What is Erik Olin Wright's view of the Canadian Class system in terms of social control (3 types)?
-command of the physical means of economic production
-supervisory control over other workers
How many types of control do the following have?
Bourgeoisie: all three
Proletariate: have none
Petit Bourgeoisie: have some of the first two forms (economic ownership and command of the physical means of economic production).
Managers: supervisory control over other workers
What are the petit bourgeoisie?
small shop owners and entrepreneurs who own capital however exercise little authority?
What are managers?
Work in firms owned by others, however, they have direct authority over a large number of workers?
What are different types of classes?
upper, upper-middle, lower-middle, working, underclass
Do many reside in the upper class?
What is the chief economic resource of the upper class? How did they get the bulk of their money?
-chief economic resource is accumulated wealth rather than income
-inherited the bulk of their money
Is the upper class full of minorities?
Where do the upper class tend to live? Who do they marry? Do many have jobs?
-tend to live in elite communities
-marry within their class
-may have small jobs, but income is mainly from stock of financial groups
What are some examples of the upper class?
royal families, movie stars, the hilton family, the kardashians
Are the upper-middle class highly visible or highly invisible?
What kind careers do the upper-middle class have?
Upper-middle class people are__secure, have a decent___, and are well__.
Where do upper-middle class tend do live? What is their dominant race? Are they more or less ethnically diverse than the upper class?
Tend to live in suburbs and although they are mostly white, they are more ethnically diverse than upper class.
What are some examples of professions in the lower-middle class?
managers, small business operators, executive assistants, and minor professionals such as school teachers and social workers.
The lower-middle live a moderatly___lifestyle.
What do the lower-middle class have a sense of insecurity and vulnerability about?
the market forces
What are the upper-middle class less inclined to participate in as opposed to the upper-middle class? Why?
Comparatively less participation in local, provincial, or national politics because they feel powerless and do not believe that hey could make substantial change.
The rocking class composes how much of the Canadian population?
The working class is composed of__and___workers.
skilled and semi-skilled
What are some example of the working class who are vulnerable to financial crisis?
-oil drop downturn
-fort mac fire
Which class is a contested concept?
What does the underclass lack?
What do the underclass fall below?
the lowe income cut off (LICO).
what is the low income cut off (LICO)?
the level of income at which a household spends 55% or more of its gross income on basic necessities
What are the 7 factors affecting social inequality in Canada
1) geographic location
2) the feminization of poverty
3) work status
5) visible minority status
7) family status
How does geographic location affect social inequality?
different provinces have different poverty rates.
What is an example of geographic location?
Ex. in 1981, Canadian poverty rate was 11% and New Brunswick, Quebec and Manitoba were all over 14%.
How does the feminization of poverty affect social inequality?
recognizes the universality of women's wage discrimination
How does work status affect social inequality?
having a job is certainly key to not living in poverty.
Work Status: according to statistics Canada, ___percent of employed people live in poverty, compared to___percent of unemployed people who live in poverty.
How does age affect social inequality in Canada?
people in their late teens/early twenties are most likely to live in poverty
How does visible minority status affect social inequality?
wage gap between whites and nonwhites
How does education affect social inequality?
school offers some protection against poverty as a university degree gives you more a a chance to get a better job
Is family status a good indicator of social inequality? If so, what is a better indicator?
Not a very strong indicator compared to SES
When did research into global inequality begin?
What is the Kuznets Curve?
A graphic representation of the relationship between a society's economic development and its social inequality.
what is the Gini Index?
A measure of the inequality of wealth or income distribution within a country.