Flashcards in Chapter 4- Lecture Deck (70):
What do macrosociological theories ask?
What are some examples of large questions asked by macrosociological theories?
1) How prevalent is racism in Saskatchewan?
2) How prevalent is homophobia is Saskatchewan?
3) Do we have a drinking and driving epidemic in Saskatchewan?
4) Why are domestic violence rates so high in Saskatchewan (relative to other provinces)
Functionalists__function of society.
Conflict theories___over scarce resources.
What do microsociological theories ask questions about?
experiences and meanings
What are some examples of microsociological questions?
1) How is racism experienced by some groups in Saskatchewan?
2) How is homophobia experienced by some groups in Saskatchewan?
3) If you have experienced domestic violence, what has been the longterm effect on you/your family?
Symbolic interactionists___people use to facilitate social life.
Feminists___surrounding gender and inequality.
Queer theorists___taken-for-granted concepts.
What kind of data do quantitative approaches use?
What do qualitative approaches try to determine?
Significant relationships between variables
Are quantitative approaches specific and unique or generalizable and comparative?
Generalizable and comparative
What is an example of a quantitate approach?
Count how many students take notes by hand and by computer. Use to results to see how well you do in the class and compare ht class averages over time.
What kind of data does a qualitative approach use?
Does a qualitative approach use a small or large sample size?
What kind of methods are typical in a qualitative approach?
Interviewing and observation
Researchers are research '___' in a qualitative approach?
What is indicative logic?
Move away from data to theory. Gather information about a topic before developing theories about how to explain particular aspects.
Is indicative logic used most often with the qualitative or quantitative approach?
What is deductive logic?
move from theory to data
Develop a theory or set of theories to explain or predict a pattern and then test the theory
What kind of approach uses deductive logic?
What are the two systems of reasoning?
Inductive logic and deductive logic
Why is academic freedom and social research important? What is undergrad vs grad research?
Undergrad- take in knowledge others have given us, not generating new knowledge.
Graduate- generating new knowledge.
-We should care because grad work is funded through gents. Type of research universities can do is based on what kind of money gov't gives to university --> determines the research you can do.
Ex. humanities is underfunded
What are the nine steps to the overall research process?
1) begin with an area of interest
2) conduct a literatures review
3) develop a specific research question or questions
4) choose a research method
5) where, and with whom, will yogurt your information
6) submit ethical review application
7) gather data
8) analyze data
9) report your findings
What does it mean to conduct a literature review?
back up your work with previous work, tells you what has gone on before
What should you consider when choosing a research method?
what best allows you to go after your data
Who do you submit an ethical review application to and why?
-research ethics board
-determine potential harm involved to make sure it is safe for you and your subjects
What are the three essential research concepts?
hypothesis, research population, and sample
What is a hypothesis?
In quantitative research, one begins with a testable theory. It is a tentative statement about a particular relationship that can be tested empirically.
What is a research population?
The group of people the researcher wishes to learn something about.
What is a sample?
A subset of the larger population
What are the 7 research methods?
3) participation observation
4) content analysis
5) secondary analysis
6) participatory action research (PAR)
7) mixed methods
What is the most extensively used method for data collection?
What kinds of questions do surveys ask?
what people do or think
What are the 4 types of surveys?
3) telephone surveys
4) in-person surveys
What is a problem with a survey?
You don't have to be truthful
What are the three types of interviews?
What is a structured interview? Is it quantitative or qualitative in nature?
-each respondent is asked the same question
What is a semi-structured interview?
-use a set of questions, however, it allows researches/respondents to guide the interview in areas they think are important.
What is an unstructured interview? Qualitative or quantitative?
-No predetermined questions, interview proceeds conservational. Approach will depend on type of data the researcher is hoping to gather.
-quantitative, qualitative, or both
What is participation observation?
Involves active participation in the daily life activities of those he or she is observing.
Is participation observation qualitative or quantitative?
Does participation use processes of induction or deduction?
What are the 3 types of participation observation? Explain each briefly.
Cover: those in the field are not informed of the researchers status
Semi-covert: only some people involved are aware
Open: everyone is aware of the researcher's status
What is content analysis? Is it qualitative or quantitative?
-The analysis of texts including movies, TV shows, magazines, blogs, etc.
-Can be qualitative, quantitative, or both.
What does secondary analysis use? Examples?
-existing data (archival data)
-libraries, gov't documents, churches, info records, newspapers, magazines
What is participatory action research?
Action research (designed to affect change) and participatory research combined together.
What do PAR projects include?
both an action component and a collaborative component
What are mixed methods?
Using one or more methods to investigate the same phenomena
What is the macro approach? Is it qualitative or quantitative? Example?
-asks questions with a wide-reaching scope
What is the micro approach? Is it qualitative or quantitative? Example?
-asks questions about experience or meaning
-interview, participation observations
What does it mean to combine micro and macro approaches? Is it qualitative or quantitative? Example?
-asks both broader and specific questions
-uses both quantitative and qualitative data
-surveys and interviews
What are ethical principles statements about?
right and wrong
What is the tai-council on ethics involving human subjects? (5 points).
-respect for others
-risks or harms
-protection of rights
What are Canada's three federal research agencies?
-the Canadian Institutes of Health Research
-the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research council of Canada
-the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
What have Canada's three federal research agencies jointly adopted?
the Tri-Council policy statement
What three things does the Tri-Coucil policy statement (2014) include directives for?
1. Respect for persons: anonymity and confidentiality
2. Concern for welfare
3. Prioritization of justice
To be balanced, what does an interviewer have to do?
Make the interview feel at home. They have to be sensitive.
What does participation observation have as a strength?
Studies are done in a natural, unaffected way
What are the challenges to participation observation?
-you have to go in without bias
-have to be given access to the group (prove you won't harm anyone and be safe)
Why are are open participation observation studies rarely used?
Because you behave differently when you know you are being watched?
What is the benefit to semi-covert participation observation?
You may need someone on the inside
What is the difference between content analysis and secondary analysis?
Contents analysis is more broad, secondary analysis is more specific.
What are the examples of Facebook and trump with content analysis?
Facebook: how it has changed from its beginning to now
Trump: analyze his tweeting from now throughout the next four years
What is an example of secondary analysis?
Research project looking at homesteader applications, church data and government data used to uncover who was in residential schools, looking at old censuses
Is content analysis qualitative, quantitative, or both?
All three choices
What does participatory action research emerge from?
What is participatory action research looking for?
an action plan
What is an example of participatory action research at the U of S?
St. John's Ambulance Therapy Dogs
-came about from studying people and their behaviour to animals
What do mixed methods capture?
a broader experience