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Flashcards in Chapter 4- Lecture Deck (70):
1

What do macrosociological theories ask?

large questions

2

What are some examples of large questions asked by macrosociological theories?

1) How prevalent is racism in Saskatchewan?
2) How prevalent is homophobia is Saskatchewan?
3) Do we have a drinking and driving epidemic in Saskatchewan?
4) Why are domestic violence rates so high in Saskatchewan (relative to other provinces)

3

Functionalists__function of society.
Conflict theories___over scarce resources.

-smooth
-struggles

4

What do microsociological theories ask questions about?

experiences and meanings

5

What are some examples of microsociological questions?

1) How is racism experienced by some groups in Saskatchewan?
2) How is homophobia experienced by some groups in Saskatchewan?
3) If you have experienced domestic violence, what has been the longterm effect on you/your family?

6

Symbolic interactionists___people use to facilitate social life.

meanings

7

Feminists___surrounding gender and inequality.

issues

8

Queer theorists___taken-for-granted concepts.

problematize

9

What kind of data do quantitative approaches use?

numerical data

10

What do qualitative approaches try to determine?

Significant relationships between variables

11

Are quantitative approaches specific and unique or generalizable and comparative?

Generalizable and comparative

12

What is an example of a quantitate approach?

Count how many students take notes by hand and by computer. Use to results to see how well you do in the class and compare ht class averages over time.

13

What kind of data does a qualitative approach use?

non-numerical data

14

Does a qualitative approach use a small or large sample size?

small

15

What kind of methods are typical in a qualitative approach?

Interviewing and observation

16

Researchers are research '___' in a qualitative approach?

instruments

17

What is indicative logic?

Move away from data to theory. Gather information about a topic before developing theories about how to explain particular aspects.

18

Is indicative logic used most often with the qualitative or quantitative approach?

qualitative

19

What is deductive logic?

move from theory to data
Develop a theory or set of theories to explain or predict a pattern and then test the theory

20

What kind of approach uses deductive logic?

quantitative

21

What are the two systems of reasoning?

Inductive logic and deductive logic

22

Why is academic freedom and social research important? What is undergrad vs grad research?

Undergrad- take in knowledge others have given us, not generating new knowledge.
Graduate- generating new knowledge.
-We should care because grad work is funded through gents. Type of research universities can do is based on what kind of money gov't gives to university --> determines the research you can do.
Ex. humanities is underfunded

23

What are the nine steps to the overall research process?

1) begin with an area of interest
2) conduct a literatures review
3) develop a specific research question or questions
4) choose a research method
5) where, and with whom, will yogurt your information
6) submit ethical review application
7) gather data
8) analyze data
9) report your findings

24

What does it mean to conduct a literature review?

back up your work with previous work, tells you what has gone on before

25

What should you consider when choosing a research method?

what best allows you to go after your data

26

Who do you submit an ethical review application to and why?

-research ethics board
-determine potential harm involved to make sure it is safe for you and your subjects

27

What are the three essential research concepts?

hypothesis, research population, and sample

28

What is a hypothesis?

In quantitative research, one begins with a testable theory. It is a tentative statement about a particular relationship that can be tested empirically.

29

What is a research population?

The group of people the researcher wishes to learn something about.

30

What is a sample?

A subset of the larger population

31

What are the 7 research methods?

1) surveys
2) interviews
3) participation observation
4) content analysis
5) secondary analysis
6) participatory action research (PAR)
7) mixed methods

32

What is the most extensively used method for data collection?

surveys

33

What kinds of questions do surveys ask?

what people do or think

34

What are the 4 types of surveys?

1) self-administered
2) questionnaires
3) telephone surveys
4) in-person surveys

35

What is a problem with a survey?

You don't have to be truthful

36

What are the three types of interviews?

1) structured
2) semi-structured
3) unstructured

37

What is a structured interview? Is it quantitative or qualitative in nature?

-each respondent is asked the same question
-quantitative

38

What is a semi-structured interview?

-use a set of questions, however, it allows researches/respondents to guide the interview in areas they think are important.

39

What is an unstructured interview? Qualitative or quantitative?

-No predetermined questions, interview proceeds conservational. Approach will depend on type of data the researcher is hoping to gather.
-quantitative, qualitative, or both

40

What is participation observation?

Involves active participation in the daily life activities of those he or she is observing.

41

Is participation observation qualitative or quantitative?

qualitative

42

Does participation use processes of induction or deduction?

induction

43

What are the 3 types of participation observation? Explain each briefly.

Cover: those in the field are not informed of the researchers status
Semi-covert: only some people involved are aware
Open: everyone is aware of the researcher's status

44

What is content analysis? Is it qualitative or quantitative?

-The analysis of texts including movies, TV shows, magazines, blogs, etc.
-Can be qualitative, quantitative, or both.

45

What does secondary analysis use? Examples?

-existing data (archival data)
-libraries, gov't documents, churches, info records, newspapers, magazines

46

What is participatory action research?

Action research (designed to affect change) and participatory research combined together.

47

What do PAR projects include?

both an action component and a collaborative component

48

What are mixed methods?

Using one or more methods to investigate the same phenomena

49

What is the macro approach? Is it qualitative or quantitative? Example?

-asks questions with a wide-reaching scope
-quantitative
-ex. surveys

50

What is the micro approach? Is it qualitative or quantitative? Example?

-asks questions about experience or meaning
-qualitative
-interview, participation observations

51

What does it mean to combine micro and macro approaches? Is it qualitative or quantitative? Example?

-asks both broader and specific questions
-uses both quantitative and qualitative data
-surveys and interviews

52

What are ethical principles statements about?

right and wrong

53

What is the tai-council on ethics involving human subjects? (5 points).

-informed consent
-respect for others
-risks or harms
-protection of rights
-voluntary participation

54

What are Canada's three federal research agencies?

-the Canadian Institutes of Health Research
-the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research council of Canada
-the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council

55

What have Canada's three federal research agencies jointly adopted?

the Tri-Council policy statement

56

What three things does the Tri-Coucil policy statement (2014) include directives for?

1. Respect for persons: anonymity and confidentiality
2. Concern for welfare
3. Prioritization of justice

57

To be balanced, what does an interviewer have to do?

Make the interview feel at home. They have to be sensitive.

58

What does participation observation have as a strength?

Studies are done in a natural, unaffected way

59

What are the challenges to participation observation?

-you have to go in without bias
-time consuming
-have to be given access to the group (prove you won't harm anyone and be safe)

60

Why are are open participation observation studies rarely used?

Because you behave differently when you know you are being watched?

61

What is the benefit to semi-covert participation observation?

You may need someone on the inside

62

What is the difference between content analysis and secondary analysis?

Contents analysis is more broad, secondary analysis is more specific.

63

What are the examples of Facebook and trump with content analysis?

Facebook: how it has changed from its beginning to now
Trump: analyze his tweeting from now throughout the next four years

64

What is an example of secondary analysis?

Research project looking at homesteader applications, church data and government data used to uncover who was in residential schools, looking at old censuses

65

Is content analysis qualitative, quantitative, or both?

All three choices

66

What does participatory action research emerge from?

a group

67

What is participatory action research looking for?

an action plan

68

What is an example of participatory action research at the U of S?

St. John's Ambulance Therapy Dogs
-came about from studying people and their behaviour to animals

69

What do mixed methods capture?

a broader experience

70

What did the trip-council on ethics involving human subjects come out of?

many years of poor research
-the Nuremberg Trials