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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (24):


The process that energizes and/or maintains a behavior



The tendency of the body (and the mind) to natural gravitate toward a state of equilibrium or balance.



An internal motivation to fulfill a need or reduce the negative aspects of an unpleasant situation.


Positive incentive value

Positive-incentive value is the anticipated pleasure involved in the performance of a particular behavior, such as eating a particular food or drinking a particular beverage. It is a key element of the positive-incentive theories of hunger.



Semantic satiation (also semantic saturation) is a psychological phenomenon in which repetition causes a word or phrase to temporarily lose meaning for the listener, who then perceives the speech as repeated meaningless sounds.


Weight cycling

Weight cycling is the repeated loss and regain of body weight. When weight cycling is the result of dieting, it is often called "yo-yo" dieting. A weight cycle can range from small weight losses and gains (5-10 lbs. per cycle) to large changes in weight (50 lbs. or more per cycle).


Competence motivation

A theory of achievement motivation based on a person's feelings of personal competence. According to the theory competence motivation increases when a person successfully masters a task. This encourages the person to master more tasks.


Achievement motivation

Achievement motivation can be defined as the need for success or the attainment of excellence. Individuals will satisfy their needs through different means, and are driven to succeed for varying reasons both internal and external.


Display rules

Display rules are a social group's informal norms about when, where, and how one should express emotions. They can be described as culturally prescribed rules that people learn early on in their lives by interactions and socializations with other people.


Self efficacy

Psychologist Albert Bandura has defined self-efficacy as one's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations or accomplish a task. One's sense of self-efficacy can play a major role in how one approaches goals, tasks, and challenges.


Arousal theory

Arousal theory states that we seek an optimum level of excitement or arousal. People with high optimum levels of arousal will be drawn to high excitement behaviors, like bungee jumping. While the rest of us are satisfied with less exciting and less risky activities.



the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger. ( ... My definition: A main ingredient our body needs to be healthy. It is good for your metabolism and for gaining energy.



Insulin is a hormone that lowers the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. It's made by the beta cells of the pancreas and released into the blood when the glucose level goes up, such as after eating.


Adipose tissue

Adipose tissue, or fat, is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body.



a peptide hormone, produced predominantly in the stomach, that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland and increases appetite.



a hormone that is secreted by cells in the duodenum and stimulates the release of bile into the intestine and the secretion of enzymes by the pancreas.



Leptin: A hormone produced mainly by adipocytes (fat cells) that is involved in the regulation of body fat. Leptin interacts with areas of the brain that control hunger and behavior and signals that the body has had enough to eat.


Neuropeptide y

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide neurotransmitter found in the brain and autonomic nervous system. It augments the vasoconstrictor effects of noradrenergic neurons.


Thematic apperception test

a projective test designed to reveal a person's social drives or needs by their interpretation of a series of pictures of emotionally ambiguous situations.


Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence or emotional quotient is the capability of individuals to recognize their own, and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different feelings and label them appropriately, ... Wikipedia



Stress is simply a reaction to a stimulus that disturbs our physical or mental equilibrium. In other words, it's an omnipresent part of life. A stressful event can trigger the “fight-or-flight” response, causing hormones such as adrenaline and cortisol to surge through the body.


General adaptation syndrome

Hans Selye described three predictable stages the body uses to respond to stressors, called general adaptation syndrome (GAS). The first stage is the alarm stage, which provides a burst of energy. In the second stage, known as the resistance stage, the body attempts to resist or adapt to the stressor.



the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.



to invest own conscious effort, to solve personal and interpersonal problems, in order to try to master, minimize or tolerate stress and conflict. ... The term coping generally refers to adaptive (constructive) coping strategies. That is strategies which reduce stress.