Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (49):
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William the Conquerer

Won the backing of the pope, conquered England, took a census in 1086, and helped make an efficient system of tax collection

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Common law

A legal system based on custom and court rulings

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Jury

Group of men sworn to speak the truth

3

King John

Excommunicated, lost battle against Phillip II, England under interdict, signed Magna Carta

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Magna Carta

Great charter

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Due process of law

The requirement that the government act fairly and in accordance with established rules in all that it does

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Habeas Corpus

The principle that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime

7

Parliament

The legislature of England, and later Great Britain

8

Louis IX

A deeply religious man who persecuted heretics and persecuted Jews and led French knights in two Crusades

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Anglo-Saxons

Invaded and settled in England

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Doomsday book

Book of census. Listed every castle, field, and pigpen in England

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Estates General

Body of representatives from all three estates, or classes of French society

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Holy Roman Empire

Empire of west Central Europe from 962-1806

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Henry IV

King of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor

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Pope Gregory VII

Pope who excommunicated Henry IV

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Lay investiture

Appointed of bishops by anyone who is not a member of the clergy

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Fredrick Barbarossa "Red Beard"

Dreamed of building an empire from the Baltic to the Adriatic, fought to bring wealthy cities of northern Italy under his control

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Pope Innocent III

Claimed supremacy

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Concordat of Worms

The treaty declared that the church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority

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St. Francis of Assisi

Approves the rules if the Franciscan order

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A 17 year old peasant women who appeared at the court of Charles vii, te uncrowned king of France. She told him that god had sent him to save France

Joan of arc

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Created a growing sense of national feeling in France am allowed French kings to expand their power

100 year war

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Crusades

A series of wars when the European Christians tried to win the control of the Holy Land from Muslims

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Holy Land

Jerusalem and other places un Palestine where Christians believe Jesus had lived there and preached

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Pope Urban II

Helped raise support to keep the Holy Lands

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Reconquista

The campaign by European Christians to drive the Muslims from present-day Spain

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Ferdinand and Isabella

Made a final push against the Muslim stronghold of Granada

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Inquisition

A church court set up to try people accused of heresy

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Saladin

Muslim leader, retook Jerusalem

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Marco Polo

A young Venetian who set out for China with his merchant father and uncle

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Richard the lion-hearted

Led the Crusades

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Scholasticism

The school of thought that used logic and reason to support Christian belief

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Thomas Aquinas

Wrote the Summa theologica, which concluded that faith and reason to exist in harmony

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Vernacular

Everyday language of ordinary people

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Dante Alighieri

An Italian poet who wrote Divine Comedy

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Divine Comedy

A poem which takes the reader on an imaginary journey into hell and purgatory, where would await forgiveness

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Gothic style

Type of European architecture that was characterized by flying buttresses, ribbed vaulting, thin walls, and high roofs

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Flying buttresses

A buttress slanting from a separate pier

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Gargoyles

A grotesque carved human or animal face or figures projecting from the gutter of a building

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Vaulted ceilings

Pointed arches called vaults form a strong skeleton on which the roof material is laid

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Notre Dame

The largest, grandest cathedrals in Paris

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Illumination

The artistic decoration of books and manuscripts

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Book of Kells

A medieval manuscript made in Ireland

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Black Death

An epidemic of the bubonic plague that ravaged Europe in the 1300s

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Epidemic

Outbreak of a rapidly spreading disease

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Inflation

Economic cycle that involves a rapid rise in prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available

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Schism

Permanent division in a church

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Longbow

Six-foot-long now that could rapidly fire arrows with enough force to pierce most armour

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Heresies

Religious belief that is contrary to the official teachings of a church