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Flashcards in chapter 8 EXAM 4 Deck (82):
1

somatic effects

biologic damage experienced by living organisms as a result of exposure to radiation

2

the somatic effects are classified as either

late somatic effects
early somatic effects

3

early somatic effects

effects of ionizing radiation that appear within minutes, hours, days, or weeks of high doses

4

early somatic effects are also called

acute effects

5

late somatic effects

non genetic effects that appear months or years following exposure to ionizing radiation

6

4 somatic and genetic damage factors

1. quantity of ionizing radiation
2. ability of the ionizing radiation to cause ionization
3. amount of body area exposed
4. the specific body parts exposed

7

true or false
ionizing radiation produces the greatest amount of biologic damage in the human body when a large dose of densely ionizing radiation is delivered to a large or radiosensitive area of the body

true

8

deterministic somatic effects

if the consequences of irradiation include cell killing and are directly related to the dose received

9

what were deterministic somatic effects formerly called

nonstochastic somatic effects

10

early deterministic somatic effects depending on the exposure will appear within

minutes, days, hours, or weeks

11

t or f
the severity of the early deterministic somatic effects is dose related

true

12

early deterministic somatic effects
high dose effects include

nausea
fatigue
erythema
epilation (loss of hair)
blood disorders
dry and moist desquamation (shedding of skin)
depressed sperm count
injury to CNS

13

acute radiation syndrome ARS

occurs in humans after whole body reception of large doses of ionizing radiation delivered over a short period of time
probs from a nuclear powerplant explosion

14

four stages of clinical signs and symptoms of ARS

1. prodromal stage
2. latent period
3. manifest illness (acute stage)
a. hematologic (hematopoietic) syndrome
b. gastrointestinal syndrome
c. CNS (cerebrovascular or neurovascular syndrome)
4. death (or recovery, in little dose)

15

1. prodromal stage

the immediate response of ARS
severity of symptoms is dose related

16

prodromal stage may last from a few hours to

a couple of days

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what is the immediate response of the prodromal stage

sickness

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individuals who are exposed to radiation levels greater than 1 Gyt dose to the whole body usually show prodromal symptoms which include

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and a reduction in the white blood cells of circulating blood

19

t or f
the time between the exposure and the onset of prodromal symptoms is an indication of the magnitude of the exposure

true

20

the prodromal stage is also called

NVD syndrome (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea)

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2. latent period

period of "well being"
no clinical symptoms or illness

22

t or f
the latent period is sometimes mistakenly thought to indicate an early recovery from a moderate radiation dose

true

23

the latent period can extend from

a few hours (at doses in excess to 50 Gyt) or less, to weeks (at doses from 1-5 Gyt)

24

the higher the dose in the latent period,

the shorter the latent period

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3. MANIFEST ILLNESS (ACUTE STAGE)

the full clinical effects are evident
a dose related period characterized by 3 syndromes

26

what are the 3 syndromes that become manifest during this manifest ilness stage

1. hematologic (hemapoetic) syndrome
2. gastrointestinal syndrome
3. CNS (cerebrovascular, neurovascular syndrome

27

the hematopoietic syndrome (hematologic syndrome) or bone marrow syndrome occurs when humans receive a whole body does of ionizing radiation ranging from

1 to 10 Gy (100-1000 rad)

28

what happens in the prodromal stage of the hematopoietic syndrome (hematologic syndrom) (bone marrow syndrome)

nausea and vomiting

29

what happens and how long is the Latent period of hematopoietic syndrome (hematologic syndrome) (bone marrow syndrome)

can extend as long as 4 weeks
no sign of illness, but the # of cells in circulating blood are declining during this time

30

what happens in the manifest illness stage of the hematopoietic syndrome (hematologic syndrome) (bone marrow syndrome)

reduction of all blood cell counts
anemia and hemorrhage
serious infections

31

at lower limits of the dose range 100 to 200 rad(1-2 Gyt) in the manifest illness of the hematopoietic syndrome

bone marrow cells will repopulate the marrow to support life in the majority of individuals
will recover 3 weeks to 6 months after irradiation

32

after an exposure of 200 rad (2 Gyt) in the hematopoietic syndrome

a few sensitive individuals may die 6-8 weeks after an exposure

33

the primary cause of death in the hematopoetic syndrome is

a destruction of bone marrow

34

the gastrointestinal syndrome occurs when humans receive whole body doses ionizing radiation ranging from

600 rad - 1000 rad (6Gy-10Gy)

35

without receiving medical support persons receiving doses of 6-10 Gy may die in how many days

3-10 days following exposure

36

prodromal stage of the Gastrointestinal syndrome occurs within? and causes what?

occurs within a few hours
causes severe nausea and vomiting accompanied by cramps and diarrhea

37

latent period of the gastrointestinal syndrome can last

as long as 5 days

38

signs and symptoms that may occur in the manifest illness stage of the gastrointestinal syndrome

fever
fatigue
loss of appetite
lethargy
anemia
leukopenia
hemorrhage
infection
electolyte imbalance

39

death from gastrointestinal syndrome occurs primarily because

of damage to epithelial cells lining the GI tract

40

what part of the GI tract is most severly affected in the manifest illness stage of the Gastrointestinal syndrome

the small intestine
because of the breakdown of epithelial cells

41

CNS syndrome occurs when the central nervous system and cardiovascular system receive doses of

50 Gyt or more

42

signs and symptoms of the prodromal stage of the CNS syndrome

excessive nervousness
confusion
severe nausea
vomiting, diarrhea
loss of vision
burning sensation of the skin
loss of consciousness

43

how long does the latent period of CNS syndrome last

up to 12 hours

44

signs and symptoms of the manifest illness stage of the CNS syndrome

prodromal symptoms come back with increased severity

45

death in the CNS syndrome may be due to

increased pressure in the confining cranial vault as a result of increased fluid content

46

lethal dose 50/30

signifies the whole body dose of radiation that can be lethal to 50% of the exposed population within 30 days

47

LD 50/30 for adult humans is estimated to be

3-4 GYt (300-400rad) without medical support

48

whole body doses greater than what may cause death to the entire population in 30 days without medical support

6 Gyt (600 rad)

49

with medical support humans have tolerated doses as high as

8.5 Gyt (850 Rad)

50

regardless of treatment, whole body equivalent doses of greater than what are fatal

12 Gyt (1200rad)

51

do organs with oxygenated cells recover better than hypoxic cells

yes

52

approximately how much percent of radiation induced damage may be repaired overtime?

90% leaving 10% irreparable

53

organ and tissue response to radiation exposure depends on

radiosensitivity
reproductive characteristics
growth rate

54

examples of tissues that suffer immediate consequences from high radiation doses

skin
male/female reproductive organs
bone marrow

55

radiodermititis

reddening of the skin caused by exposure to ionizing radiation
leads to cancerous lesions on hands and fingers

56

william herbert rollins was a

boston dentist who suffered severe burns on hands and fingers

57

william herbert rollins is known as the first

advocate of radiation protection

58

3 layers of skin

1. epidermis
2. dermis
3. hypodermis

59

a single absorbed dose of what can cause skin erythema within 24-48 hrs after irradiation

a dose of 2 Gy (200 rad)

60

desquamation

shedding of outer layer of skin

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epilation or alopecia

hair loss

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in the past skin diseases such as ring worm were treated and cured by irradiation of the affected area with

grenz rays (xrays in energy range of 10-20 kVp)

63

doses as low as what are capable of depressing male sperm population and has the potential to cause genetic mutations in future generations

doses as low as 0.1 Gy (10rad)

64

a gonadal dose of what may delay or supress menstruation in the female

doses of 0.1 Gy (10rad)

65

a dose of what in male testes and female ovaries may lead to temporary sterility

2 GYt (200rad)

66

a dose of what in testes and ovaries may lead to permanent sterility

5-6 Gyt (500-600rad)

67

genetic mutations have been produced in experimental animals when their ovaries were irradiated with doses as low as

.25 Gyt (25rad)

68

a whole body dose of what would produce a measurable hematologic depression

0.25 Gy (25rad)

69

cells of the hematopoietic system all develop from a single precursor cell called

pluripotential stem cell

70

lymphocytes

white blood cells that play an active role in producing immunity for the body

71

granulocytes

white blood cells that act as scavengers to fight bacteria

72

thrombocytes

platelets
blood cells that initiate blood clotting and prevent hemorrhage

73

erythrocytes

red blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to all body tissue and cells as blood circulates

74

life span of lymphocytes

a few hours

75

Life span of erythrocytes

almost 120 days

76

a radiation dose as low as what can cause a decrease of lymphocytes in the bloood

a dose as low as 0.1 Gy (10rad)

77

a dose of what will cause a decrease in neutrophils

a dose of 0.5 Gy (50rad)

78

a dose greater than what can cause a decrease in the number of thrombocytes

a dose greater than 0.5 Gy (50rad)

79

a measurable hematologic depression can be caused by a whole body dose of radiation as low as

0.25 Gy (25rad)

80

cytogenetics

study of cell genetics with emphasis on cell chromosomes

81

karyotype

cytogenic analysis of chromosomes through the use of a chromosome map

82

chromosome damage caused by radiation can be evaluated during what stage of mitosis

metaphase