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Flashcards in chapter 1 EXAM 1 Deck (38):
1

what are the cardinal principles of radiation protection

time
distance
shielding

2

what is the most effective means of protection

Distance, but using all 3 is the best

3

xrays are a form of what kind of radiation

ionizing radiation

4

consequences of ionization in human cells

1. unstable atoms
2. free electrons
3. low energy xray photons
4. free radicals capable of producing poisonous substances to the cell
5. creation of new biologic molecules harmful to cell
6. injury to the cell that may cause abnormal or loss of function

5

what are the 4 things radiographers do to minimize damage to biologic tissue

1. be educated in safe operation of equipment
2. use protective devices when possible
3. follow established procedures
4. select optimal technique factors

6

radiation safety is the responsibility of who

the imaging personnel

7

radiation protection

the effective measures employed by radiation workers to safeguard pts. personnel and general public from unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation

8

what are the 2 main adverse biologic effects

cancer and genetic defects

9

diagnostic efficacy

the degree to which the diagnostic study accurately reveals the presence or absence of disease in the pt.
basis for determining whether an imaging procedure or practice is justified.

10

diagnostic efficacy =

imaging procedure/practice justified by physician-----minimal radiation exposure ------> optimal images produced ----> presence or absence of disease shown

11

T or F
radiation induced cancer follows a non-threshold response so radiation exposures should always be kept ALARA

True
meaning there is no dose that is safe. any exposure has ppotential to cause biologic damage

12

ALARA is synonymous with the term

ORP
Optimization for Radiation Protection

13

what is they international term for ALARA

ORP

14

what to do to reduce dose to the patient

reduce amount of beam on time
use as much distance between tube and pt.
use appropriate sheilding

15

what to do to reduce dose to personnel

reduce time spent in the room during exposures
increase distance from the beam
use lead shielding between radiographer and machine

16

employers responsibility

implement and maintain effective radiation safety program to execute ALARA
provide written policy statement
have a radiation safety officer manage ALARA program
perform periodic exposure audits

17

workers responsibility

be aware of radiation safety rules
perform duties consistent with ALARA

18

RSO is

radiation safety officer

19

risk

probability of injury ailment or death resulting from an activity

20

for radiation sciences the risk after irradiation is including

radiogenic carcinoma
genetic defects (heritable effects)

21

when patients ask are xrays safe

tell patients that for normal diagnostic exams there are no existing data of nay unsafe effects from the xrays used in the exam

22

when patients ask about the amount of radiation

more difficult to answer
the dose is measured in a bunch of different units and patients have a hard time comprehending. so use BERT

23

what does BERT stand for

Background Equivalent Radiation Time

24

what is BERT

method to help educate and reduce patient's fear and anxietty about the dose received for xray exams

25

who recommends BERT

the NCRP national council for radiation protection

26

what does BERT do

compares radiation received from a specific xray exam with natural background radiation received over a given period of time

27

BERT is based on

annual US population exposure

28

what is the annual US population exposure that BERT is based on

3 mSv/year
300 mrem/year

29

advantages of BERT

its a means for comparison
emphasizes that radiation is an innate part of our environment
easy for patient to comprehend

30

what state was the first to adopt laws specific to recording tracking and reporting radiation dose to the patient and referring physician

California

31

what does TRACE stand for

Tools for Radiation Awareness and Community Education

32

what is the TRACE program

designed to help patients and the community understand the safe use of radiation and to become more active participants in their own healthcare

33

what are the main components of the TRACE program

1 embedded software capable or recording and reporting dose
2 timely notification of referring physician and pt. when radiation dose is greater than 3 Gy
3 lowering CT doses through improved technology and alterations to existing protocols

34

2 phases of the TRACE program

1. formulating new policies and procedures to promote radiation safety and the implementation of patient and community education
2. technologic enhancements

35

phase 1 of TRACE program
what can we do to educate pts./community

informational posters
brochures
basic info on a website for pt. education

36

phase 1 of TRACE program
what can we do to educate imaging staff

in service education
handing out facts to remember sheets
E-mails highlighting important topics

37

phase 2 of TRACE program
what can we do

acquire CT dose reduction technology
utilize tools for recording and reporting dose
providing notification for excessive radiation dose

38

what is the end result of the TRACE program

reduction in dose to patient