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Flashcards in chapter 10 EXAM 5 Deck (85):
1

effective dose limiting system

a set of numeric dose limits that are based on calculations of the various risks of cancer and genetic effects to tissues or organs exposed to radiation

2

What is the effective dose limiting system

the concept of radiation exposure and the associated risk of radiation induced malignancy

3

what are the 2 reasons medical imaging professionals must be familiar with previous, existing and new guidelines for radiation safety?

1. they share the responsibility for patient safety from radiation exposure
2. they are subject to radiation exposure in the performance of their duties

4

T or F
informed radiographers will be more conscious of good radiation safety practices

true

5

4 major organizations are responsible for evaluating the relationship between radiation EqD and induced biologic effects. those 4 organizations are:

1. international comission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)
2. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)
3. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)
4. National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (NAS/NRC-BEIR)

6

what is the function of the ICRP

it evaluates information on biologic effects of radiation and provides radiation protection guidance through general recommendations on occupational and public dose limits

7

what is the function of the NCRP

it reviews regulations formed by the ICRP and decides ways to include those recommendations in the US radiation protection criteria

8

what is the function of UNSCEAR

it evaluates human and environmental ionizing radiation exposure and derives radiation risk assessments from epidemiologic data and research conclusions. It provides info to organizations such as the ICRP for evaluation

9

what is the function of NAS/NRC-BEIR

it reviews studies of biologic effects on ionizing radiation and risk assessment and provides the info to organizations such as the ICRP for evaluation

10

what does ICRP stand for

International Commission on radiological protection

11

what does NCRP stand for

National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

12

what does UNSCEAR stand for

United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

13

what does NAS/NRC-BEIR stand for

National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Comittee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

14

what are the 5 US regulatory agencies

1. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
2. Agreement States
3. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
4. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
5. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

15

what do the US regulatory agencies do

they enforce the protection standards that have been determined for the protection of the general public, patients, and occupationally exposed personnel

16

what is the function of the NRC

oversees the nuclear energy industry, enforces radiation protection standards, enters into written agreements with state governments permitting the state to license and regulate the use of radioisotopes and certain other material within that state

17

what is the function of Agreement states

enforce radiation protection regulations through their respective health departments

18

what is the function of the EPA

facilitates the development and enforcement of regulations pertaining to the control of radiation in the environment

19

what is the function of the FDA

conducts an ongoing product radiation control program regulating the design and manufacture of electronic products including xray equipment

20

what is the function of OSHA

functions as a monitoring agency in places of employment, predominantly in industry

21

public law 90-602, the radiation control for health and safety act of 1968, the FDA

conducts an ongoing product radiation control program regulating the desing and manufacture of electronic products including diagnostic xray machines

22

T or F
all facilities providing imaging services must have an effective and detailed radiation safety program to ensure adequate safety for pts. and workers

true

23

to maintain a radiation safety program you must do 3 things

1. delegate operational funds in the budget
2. oversee the development of policies and procedures
3. provide the equipment necessary for starting and continuing the program

24

T or F
the NRC mandates a radiation safety committee (RSC)

true

25

what is a radiation safety committee (RSC)

group that assists in the development of the radiation safety program in the health care facility
provides guidance for the program and facilitates ongoing operation

26

Radiation safety officer (RSO)

medical physicist, health physicist, or radiologist responsible to ensure the internationally accepted guidelines for radiation protection are followed in the facility

27

what are the responsibilities of an RSO

implement and enforce the policies of the radiation safety program
reviews and maintains radiation monitoring records for all personnel and be available to provide counseling for individuals

28

what is the required training and experience for and RSO

certification by a professional board approved by the NRC
didactic and work experience
identification as an authorized user

29

duties of the RSO

identify radiation safety problems
initiate, recommend or provide corrective action
stop unsafe operations
verify implementation of corrective actions

30

radiation control for health and safety public law 90-602

passed by congress to protect the public from the hazards of unnecessary radiation resulting from electronic products such as microwaves and tv's

31

what did the radiation control for health and safety public law 90-602 permit

it permitted the establishment of center for devices and radiological health CDRH

32

what are the responsibilities of the radiation control for health and safety law 90-602

assessing biologic effects of ionizing radiation
evaluating radiation emissions from electronic products in general
conducting research to reduce radiation expsure

33

what is the code of standards for diagnostic xray equipment

strictly an equipment performance standard

34

when did the code of standards for diagnostic xray equipment go into effect

august 1 1974

35

ALARA is synonymous with the term

optimization in accordance with ICRP publications

36

the ALARA concept presents a model in which the relationship is a

linear nonthreshold

37

what is stated in the FDA document known as the White Paper

each patient should get the right imaging exam at the right time with the right radiation dose

38

the FDA intends to take action to (3)

1. promote safe use of medical imaging devices
2. support informed clinical decision
3. increase patient awareness

39

consumer-patient radiation health and safety act of 1981

provides federal legislation requiring the establishment of minimal standards for the accreditation of education programs for persons who perform radiologic procedures and the certification of such persons

40

what is the purpose of the consumer-patient radiation health and safety act of 1981

to ensure standard medical and dental radiologic procedures adhere to rigorous safety precautions and standards

41

NCRP reprot No. 116 limitation of exposure to ionizing radiation states the goal of radiation protection is

to prevent the occurrence of serious radiation induced cautions

42

what are the 2 categories for radiation induced responses

1. deterministic effects
2. stochastic effects

43

deterministic effects

biologic somatic effects that can be directly related to the dose received
occur only after high doses
have a threshold dose

44

examples of early deterministic effects are

erythema
epilation
ARS

45

examples of late deterministic effects are

cataract formation
fibrosis
organ atrophy
reduced fertility

46

stochastic effects

randomly occurring biologic somatic changes
chance of occurring increase with increased radiation exposure

47

a stochastic event is

an all or non random effect and could result form exposure of a single cell or from damage in a sensitive structure . no safe dose exists

48

examples of stochastic effects

cancer
genetic effects

49

2 objectives or radiation protection

1. to prevent any clinically important radiation induced deterministic effects
2. to limit the risk of stochastic responses to a conservative level

50

current radiation protection philosophy is based on what?

the assumption of a linear nonthreshold relationship between dose and biologic response
meaning even the smallest dose has a potential to cause harm

51

risk in general terms

the probability of injury ailment or death resulting from an activity

52

risk from medical imaging standpoint

the possibility of inducing radiogenic cancer or a genetic defect after irradiation

53

what is the current method for assessing radiation exposure and associated risk of biologic effects to radiation workers and the general public?

the effective dose limiting system

54

the effective dose limit concerns

the upper boundary dose of ionizing radiation that results in a negligible risk of bodily injury or hereditary damage

55

NCRp recommends radiation protection programs be designed to prevent individual workers from having

a total external plus internal cumulative EFD in excess of their age in years times 10 mSv

56

the greatest risk of radiation induced mental retardation occurred when the embyro fetus was exposed

8-15 weeks after conception

57

the concept underlying radiation protection

the essential concept is that any organ in the body is vulnerable to damage from radiation exposure

58

critical organs defined by the NCRP include

gonads, bone marrow, and lung tissue

59

tissue weighting factor indicates the

ratio of the risk of stochastic effects attributable to irradiation of a given organ or tissue to the total risk when the whole body is uniformly irradiated

60

what is the annual occupational effective dose limit

50 mSv (5rem)

61

the lifetime EfD limit should not exceed

10 times the occupationally exposed person's age in years

62

cumulative Effective dose limit

radiation worker's lifetime effective dose must be limited to his/her age in years times 10 mSv

63

effective dose limits do not include

radiation exposure from natural background radiation
exposures from radiation worker undergoing medical imaging procedure

64

effective dose limits do include

internal exposure
external exposure

65

collective effective dose

designated for use in the description of population or group exposure from low doses of different sources of ionizing radiation

66

collective effective dose is the product of

the average effective dose for an individual belonging to the exposed group and the number of persons exposed

67

what is the unit to express collective effective dose

person-sievert

68

ICRP recommendation for downward revision of the annual effective dose limit: in 1991 the ICRP recommended the reduction of the annual EFD limit for occupationally exposed persons from 50 mSv to what

to 20 mSc (2rem)

69

NCRP is still considering the possibility of reducing exposure standards because of 2 things

1. revised risk estimates from a-bomb survivors
2. appearance from longer follow up time of increased numbers of solid tumors in the survivor population

70

the annual whole body EfD for ocupationally exposed persons in the U.S. may be limited to what per year

10-20 mSv per year

71

in the US lowering the current EfD limits is the responsibility of who

NRC, individual states and the FDA

72

Limits for non occupationally exposed individuals:
EFD limit is what for continuous or frequent exposures from artificial sources other than medical irradiation and natural background radiation

1 mSv

73

Limits for non occupationally exposed individuals:
EFD limit is what annually for infrequent exposure

5 mSv

74

limits for pregnant radiation workers
NCRP recommends a monthly EqD limit not exceeding what to the embryo fetus

0.5 mSv per month to the embryo fetus

75

limits for pregnant radiation workers
NCRP recommends a limit during the entire pregnancy not to exceed what

5.0 mSv after declaration of pregnancy

76

limits for education and training purposes:
the limit for any education and training exposures of individuals under the age of 18 yrs is an EfD of

1mSv annually

77

limits for tissues and organs exposed selectively or together with other organs:
what is the dose limit to crystalline lens of the eye

150 mSv

78

limits for tissues and organs exposed slectively or together with other organs:
what is the dose limit for localizd areas of the skin, the hands, and feet

500 mSv

79

Negligible individual dose:
an annual negligible individual risk of what per source of practice has been set

0.01 mSv a year

80

radiographers personnel dosimeter reading should be

well below a tenth of the max EfD limits

81

action limits

limits for occupational exposure that are set by the medical facility well below the regulatory values as they appear in state or federal regulations

82

what is radiation hormesis

effect that is a beneficial consequence of radiation for populations continuously exposed to moderately higher levels of radiation

83

radiation hormesis suggests that

risk from very small radiation exposure may be incorrect, however, until radiation hormesis theroy is proven we will always follow ALARA

84

effective dose limits for radiation workers and the population as a whole:
as radiation workers the EfD is what for whole body occupational dose

50 mSv/year whole body occupational dose

85

special limits for selected areas:
special limits are set for crystalline lens of eye and localized areas of the skin, hands, and feet to prevent

deterministic effects