Chapter 2 EXAM 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 EXAM 1 Deck (78):
1

Radiation

energy in transit from one location to another

2

matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

3

what are the fundamental building blocks of matter

atoms and molecules

4

what is the scientific unit of mass

kilograms

5

energy

the ability to do work

6

energy is measured in radiology using the unit

electron volt

7

energy is measured in SI unit called

the joule

8

potential energy

the ability to do work by virtue of position

9

kinetic energy

the energy of motion

10

chemical energy

energy released by a chemical reaction

11

electrical energy

the work that can be done when an electron or an electronic charge moves through an electric potential

12

thermal energy

heat
energy of molecular motion

13

nuclear energy

energy contained in the nucleus of an atom

14

electromagnetic energy

type of energy in xrays, radiowaves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, and gamma rays

15

electromagnetic energy is also referred to as

electromagnetic radiation

16

photon

the smallest quantity of any type of electromagnetic energy
travels through space at the speed of light

17

a photon is also sometimes called

a quantum

18

speed of light =

186,000 miles per sec..
3*10^8 m/s

19

electromagnetic radiation appears to have a dual nature called

wave-particle duality

20

wave-particle duality means

it can travel through space in the form of a wave but can interact with matter as a particle of energy

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xrays can be described as both...

waves and particles

22

types of electromagnetic radiation that comprise the electromagnetic spectrum (7 types)

1. radio waves
2. microwaves
3. infrared light
4. visible light
5. ultraviolet light
6. xrays
7. gamma rays

23

ultraviolet light

has enough energy to destroy bacteria and produce changes in the skin layers

24

xrays/gamma rays

short wavelengths, high energy, high frequency
capable of ionization.

25

ionization

removal of an electron from its orbital path

26

the only difference between xrays and gamma rays

is their origin

27

all electromagnetic waves have the same

constant speed

28

electromagnetic waves are different in

wavelength and frequency

29

wavelength

distance between 2 successive crests or troughs in a wave

30

frequency

the number of wavelengths passing a point per second

31

an increase in frequency must always be accompanied by a decrease in

wavelength

32

frequency is what in proportion to wavelength

inversely proportional

33

photon energy and frequency are

directly proportional

34

electromagnetic spectrum is divided into 2 parts

1. ionizing radiation
2. nonionizing radiation

35

ionizing radiation includes

xrays, gamma rays, high energy ultraviolet radiation
has enough energy to eject electrons from atoms

36

nonionizing radiation includes

low energy ultraviolet radiation
visible light
infrared rays
microwaves and radiowaves

37

radiation dose

the amount of energy transferred to electrons by ionizing radiation

38

equivalent dose

a quantity of radiation applying only to ionizing radiation

39

ionizing radiation can be classified into 2 categories

1. electromagnetic radiation
2. particulate radiation

40

electromagnetic radiation includes

xrays and gamma rays

41

particulate radiation includes

alpha particles
beta particles
neutrons
protons

42

particulate radiation refers to

particles originating from radioactive nuclei with the energy to ionize matter

43

alpha particles, beta particles, protons and neutrons are all

subatomic particles that are ejected from atoms at very high speeds. can cause ionization when in motion but not when at rest.

44

radioactive decay

naturally occurring process whereby an unstable atomic nucleus relieves its instability by various types of nuclear spontaneous emissions

45

radioisotope

radioactive atoms that have the same number of protons that are changed into different atomic species

46

alpha particles are also called

alpha rays

47

alpha particles

contain 2 protons and 2 neutrons
has a large mass
cause more damage than xrays

48

alpha radiation from an external source is

nearly harmless

49

alpha radiation from an internal source can

intensely irradiate the local tissue
if ingested internally you'll die

50

an average alpha particle possesses

4 to 7 MeV of kinetic energy

51

average alpha particle ionizes about

40000 atoms

52

In air alpha particles can travel

5cm

53

in soft tissue alpha particles travel

less than 100

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beta particles are also called

beta rays

55

beta particles

light particles w/ atomic mass of 0
one negative or positive charge
cause more damage than xrays but not as much as alpha particles

56

the only difference between electrons and negative beta particles is

their origin

57

positive beta particles are called

positrons

58

what can be used as a shield for alpha particles

piece of paper

59

what can stop beta particles

a piece of wood

60

beta particles may traverse how much air

10-100cm of air

61

beta particles may traverse how much soft tissue

1-2cm of soft tissue

62

protons

positively charged components of an atom

63

proton beam therapy uses a special machine called

a cyclotron or a synchrotron to generate and accelerate protons

64

neutrons

electrically neutral components of an atom

65

neutron beam therapy uses

neutrons to destroy dense tumors

66

equivalent dose EqD

radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposes when a person receives exposure from various types of ionizing radiation
attempts to numerically specify the biologic harm produced by different types of radiation

67

equivalent dose enables the calculation or

effective dose

68

what is the unit of equivalent dose

Sievert or REM

69

effective dose EfD

takes into account the equivalent dose and also the fact that our organs have different degrees of radiosensitivity
represents the whole body dose

70

damage at the atomic level results in

molecular change which can cause cellular damage

71

if cellular damage is excessive the organism exhibits genetic or self changes for example

mutations
cataracts
leukemia

72

example of organic damage

changes in blood count
may cause decrease in the number of lymphocytes
blood system is pretty radiosensitive

73

2 types of sources of radiation

1. natural environmental radiation
2. man made radiation

74

Total EqD from natural radiation

3.0 mSv or 300 mRem

75

total EqD from manmade radiation

3.3 mSv or 330 mRem

76

Total EqD from both manmade and natural radiation

6.3 mSv or 630 mRem

77

natural sources of radiation include

terrestrial radiation
cosmic radiation
internally deposited radionuclides

78

manmade sources of radiation include

consumer products
air travel
nuclear fuel
nuclear weapons testing
nuclear power plant accidents/caused by natural disasters
medical radiation