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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (122):
1

Descriptive Research Methods

1) Quantitative -  explore objective facts

2) Qualitative - explore subjective meanings

2

Quantitative Methods (4)

1) interviews

2) questionnaires

3) surveys

4) psychological tests

a) psychometric tests

b) projective tests

3

Quantitative Methods → 1) Interviews

gathering facts

4

Quantitative Methods → 2) Questionnaires

anonymously estimate characteristics of population based on sample

5

Quantitative Methods → 3) Surveys

 

defined by purpose not form

6

Quantitative Methods → 4) Psychological Tests

 

assess traits of individual

a) Psychometric - examine performance relative to norm (academic ability, personality)

b) Projective - infer characteristics based on reaction to stimuli

  • problem - scoring

 

7

Qualitative Methods → 1) Qualitative Interview

subjective experience

 

8

Qualitative Methods → 2) Focus Groups

  • Benefits 

interview in groups

Benefits:

  • interpersonal dynamics can be examined 
  • can interview multiple people at a time

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Qualitative Methods → 3) Ethnographic Research

cross-cultural investigations

- examine sub-cultures in mainstream culture

10

Qualitative Methods → 4) Historical Research

 

examine past events based on historical records

 

11

Descriptive Research Methods → Advantages (7)

 

 

1) Ecological Validity - studies relationships among variables as they naturally occur

2) Economy - cheaper

3) Practical Reasons - more applicable, hard to use exp. method

4) Ethical Reasons

5) Qualitative

6) Correlations

7) Preliminary to Experimental Research

12

Qualitative Methods (4)

1) qualitative interview

2) focus group

3) ethnographic research

4) historical research

13

Quantitative Methods → 1) Interviews

gathering info about people by conversing with them in face-to-face dialogue

14

Quantitative Methods → 1) Interviews

 

General Requirements (7)

1) Establishment of Rapport

2) Statement of Purpose

3) Detached/Objective Attitude

4) Staying on Topic

5) Careful Wording of Questions

6) Knowing When to End

7) Accurate Record of Interviews

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General Requirements of Interviews

1) Establishment of Rapport

comfortability, small talk

close/harmonious relationship in which people  concerned understand each other's feelings/ideas and communicate well.

 

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General Requirements of Interviews

2) Statement of Purpose

main way interviews differ from conversation

articulating the particular goal/theme of interview

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General Requirements of Interviews

3) Detached/Objective Attitude

midpoint between cold/harsh & personally/emotionally invested or involved

- attitude conveyed is one that is personable but not personally involved

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General Requirements of Interviews

4) Staying on Topic

not to stray too much from main theme/topic

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General Requirements of Interviews

5) Careful Wording of Questions

 

as clear & unambiguous as possible

(2) types of questions to avoid:

1) Ambiguous - can be interpreted in 2 or more ways (how are you liking your classes?)

2) Loaded - suggests what answer should be (when's the last time you cheated on a test?)

20

General Requirements of Interviews

7) Accurate Record of Interviews

video or audio recording

- to record how something is said (tone of voice) & nonverbal gestures (anxious, looking around)

21

Quantitative

Types of Interviews (4)

 

1) Unstructured Interview

2) Structured Interview

3) Standardized Structured Interview

4) Mixed Question Interview

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1) Unstructured Interview

interviews in which interviewer provides minimal direction to interviewee

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2) Structured Interview

 

 

interviews with pre-specified:

1) set of topics

2) order of discussion

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3) Standardized Structured Interview

interviews with pre-specified:

1) wording of questions

2) order of questions

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4) Mixed Question Interview

 

 

 

interviews using different kinds of questions

1) open-ended

2) fixed option (closed-ended)

3) rating scale questions

 

(diminished benefits of interview style)

26

Problems with Interviews (3)

1) Interviewer Bias

2) Interviewee Dishonesty (Social Desirability)

3) Implementation Costs

27

1) Interviewer Bias

- (2) types

affect amount & quality of info given

1) personal bias - eye contact, personal characteristics, tone of voice

2) social/ethnic bias - class → age, SES, gender, ethnicity, racial background

 

28

2) Interviewer Dishonesty (Social Desirability)

 

 

visible presence fosters social desirability more than in questionnaires

- choose alternative that is more socially acceptable or desirable

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3) Implementation Costs

  • (3) types

1) Training Costs - of interviewers

2) Travel Costs - to interview

3) Administration Costs - making/cancelling appointments, coordinating etc.

30

Advantages of Interviews (5)

 

 

  1. know who person is
  2. higher response rate- hard to turn down personal request
  3. best way to gain sensitive info (psych disorders, intrapersonal relationships)
  4. flexibility- correct misinterpretations
  5. monitor non-verbal behavior - facial expression, gesture, paraliniguistics, body language

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(5) main steps in designing a questionnaire

1) determine purpose

2) determine types of questions

3) write the items

4) determine how data will be analyzed

5) determine method of administration

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1) determine purpose

 

what do i expect to accomplish?

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2) determine types of questions

 

closed-ended - limits respondents to alternatives determined in advance by questionnaire's design

open-ended - answer in own words 

34

3) write the items

(7) tips on composing good questionnaire items 

1) address single issue per item

2) avoid bias

3) make alternatives clear

4) beware of social desirability tendency

5) beware of acquiescence 

6) determine format of item

7) sequence items 

35

1) address single issue per item

 

unambiguous, clear 

not double-barreled

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2) avoid bias

 

write Q in way that will not bias results 

example:

do you beleive in killing unborn babies?

should women be forced to bear unwanted children?

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3) make alternatives clear

 

particular need to write closed-ended Qs in a way that options are distinctly different from each other & they cover all possibilities

→ answers must be exhaustive mutually exclusive 

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Exhaustive

categories defined so that all possible cases will fall into one of them 

 

all cases must fall into 1 or another of the alternatives

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Mutually Exclusive 

categories defined so that membership in one rules out membership in another 

 no individual case could belong to more than one category at a time 

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4) beware of social desirability tendency

 

characteristic of certain responses that cause people to choose it even if it does not represent their true tendency/opinion

bias when respondents percieve one alternative as more socially acceptable than another

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What is used to detect dishonest answers?

Verification Key: set of questions designed to detect dishonest

& if person has tendency to be overly influenced by social desirability 

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5) beware of acquiescence 

what questionnaire format is highly susceptible to this bias?

tendency to agree with statement on a question regardless of its content

– (Questionnaire with all binary closed-ended Qs are highly susceptible to bias caused by this) 

43

6) Determine format of item

depends on type of question (T/F, MC, ratings) 

visual analog scale

likert scale

branching items

44

Visual Analog Scale (VAS) 

- can be used to indicate?

question that askes for response by marking line b/w min max values for statement 

can be used to indicate respondent's degree of agreement/disagreement with a particular position

45

Likert Scale

question asking for rating of the extent of agreement/disagreement with a statement → a rating scale 

46

Branching Items

set of Qs that enable respondent to move through survey in different ways depending upon responses 

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7) Sequence the Items

order of items → answers to Qs may be biased if they follow some others 

start off broad & get more specific to topic of interest

example: before asking about campus security, you would want to know if security was even an issue with students 

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4) Determine how Data will be Analyzed

how questionnaire is to be scored analyzed 

 

- decide what statistics to use, if you will be able to draw proper conclusions from data

- if you think certain groups of people may answer differently → need Qs to permit classification on these dimensions

49

5) Determine Method of Administration

(4) modes 

1) Face-to-Face

2) Written Response

3) Computerized Administration

4) Telephone Administration

50

Define and distinguish between open-ended and closed-ended questions.

 

Open: answer in own words

Closed: limits respondents to pre-determined alternatives 

 

51

Advantages & Disadvantages of:

a) Open-ended Qs

 

ADVANTAGES: can answer more completely, reveal reasoning, more likely to discover something not anticipated in design

DISADVANTAGESharder to code b/c answers in narrative form, categorize responses after (breaks cardinal rule) 

52

Advantages & Disadvantages of:

b) Closed-ended Qs

ADVANTAGES: easier to code, fewer off-the-wall answers, dont need to think as hard or be as articulate to formulate 

DISADVANTAGES: issues may be too complex to reduce to small set of alternatives, may not agree with any, puts words in mouth, misinterpretation of Q is hard to discover

53

How is the social desirability tendency detected?

by using a verification key - a set of questions designed to detect dishonest answers & if a person has tendency to be overly influenced by social desirability 

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Acquiescence Tendency

tendency to agree with statement on question regardless of its content

55

Branching Items

  • advantages

set of Qs that enable respondents to move through questionnaire in different ways depending upon responses

  • can skip innapropriate/irrelevant Qs & more through more efficiently

56

(4) methods of administrating a questionnaire

 

 

  1. face-to-face
  2. written responses
  3. computerized administration
  4. telephone administration

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Advantages (5) & Disadvantages (3) of:

 

 

Face-to-Face Administration

  • establish rapport
  • direct attention to material
  • motive them to answer carefully
  • guarantee order of administration
  • correct misinterpretations

 

  • social desirability tendency
  • expensive
  • time-consuming

58

Advantages & Disadvantages of:

 


Written Responses

 

  • efficient use of time & money
  • low cost

 

  • lower response rate
  • possible misinterpretation
  • can't determine seriousnes of respondent

59

Advantages & Disadvantages of:

 

 

Computerized Administration

 

  • control sequencing & branching
  • reduce social desirability
  • available 24/7
  • allow high level of participation without high cost

 

  • same problems as written responses
  • security of responding
    • storage of survey info must be ensured without violating privacy of respondent

60

Advantages & Disadvantages of:

 

 

Telephone Administration

  • low cost
  • computer-assisted interview
  • conducted from central location & interviewers can be supervised

 

  • reduced external validity →less people with home phones
  •  

61

Problems created by low response rates to surveys

 

- data from people motivated to respond

- biased in direction of more vocal people

- quality of data is direct function of response rate

→researchers need at least 50% & prefer 90%

62

(4) types of samples

1) Haphazard

2) Purposive

3) Convenience

4) Probability

63

1) Haphazard Sample

 

popn subgroup selected using hit-or-miss

→ does not follow any systematic way of selecting participants

(

 

64

2) Purposive Sample

 

non-random sample chosen for some characteristic it possesses

ex) survey opinions of presidents of several leading colleges about desirable changes in college curriculum

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3) Convenience Sample

 

non-random sample chosen for practical reasons

66

4) Probability Sample

 

sample selected in way as to be representative of population

- most rely on random sampling

- permit one to apply various statistics

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Random Sample

sample in which every member of popn has equal & independant chance of being selected

68

Sampling Frame

 

population as it is defined for purposes of selecting subjects for study

→popn that you work with for particular study

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Element

 

individual member of a sampling frame

70

Systematic Sample

 

 

probability sample that is not randomly selected

71

Problems using Systematic Samples

 

structure may result in bias

taking every nth individual of structured list may result in bias

72

(3) types of random samples

 

1) Simple Random

2) Stratified Random

3) Cluster

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1) Simple Random Sample

 

group chosen from entire popn such that every member has equal & independant chance of being selected in a single sample

74

2) Stratified Random Sample

 

2 or more subsamples are represented according to some predetermined proportion, generally in same proportion as they exist in popn

 

(treat popn as 2 or more subpopulations & create seperate random sample of each)

 

ex) same-sex ratio, age ratio etc.

75

3) Cluster Sample

group selected using clusters/groupings from larger population

 

ex) rather than taking 1/10 students of each class, randomly select 1/10 of classes to study

 

76

Multistage Sampling

 

 

form of cluster sampling in which clusters are further broken down by taking samples from each cluster

 

ex) selecting one or more highschols within each geographical area & then selecting seniors within each

77

Quantitative Methods → 2) Questionnaires

gathering info about people anonymously using standardized series of Qs

78

Components of Questionnaire (4)

1) Preamble → intro of purpose & instructions

2) Identification Questions→ demographic Qs, background info

3) Research Questions → make up data

4) Branching Instructions

79

Types of Questionnaire Items (7)

 

 

 

1) Fixed-Option

2) Rating Scale

3) Yes-No

4) True-False

5) Likert-Scale (Agree-Disagree)

6) Funnel Questions

7) Open-ended Questions

80

1) Fixed-Option

Qs with qualitatively distinct response alternatives

(type/kind)

81

2) Rating Scale

Qs with quantitatively distinct response alternatives

  • 3 types

82

(3) types of Rating-Scale Items

 

 

1) Categorical → quantitative dimension but response based on adjective

2) Numerical → represented more explicitly in numerical form

3) Graphical → for responses on continuum (mark vertical line along horizontal line)

83

3) Yes-No

Binary-choice Qs on matters of fact

84

4) True-False

 

 

Binary decision Qs on particular theme

85

5) Likert-Scale (Agree-Disagree)

Qs on attitudes or opinions

86

6) Funnel Questions

 

 

series of related Qs soliciting progressively more detailed information

 

discourages dishonest answers b/c have to follow-up

branching items within

87

7) Open-ended Questions

 

 

 

Qs that respondents can answer in their own words

88

Sources of Questionnaire Bias (2)

 

1) Question Bias

2) Response Bias

89

1) Question Bias

  •  (4) types

1) Double-barreled

2) Loaded

3) Leading

4) Double Negatives

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1) Double-barreled

 

 

items that ask 2 seperate Qs simultaneously

91

2) Loaded

items that contain emotionally charged or value-laden term

 

"do you feel sleazy magazine should be openly displayed at local newstands?"

92

3) Leading Qs

 

 

items that tend to influence responses in a certain direction

do you agree with most federal policy analysts that reducing deficit is our most urgent fiscal priority?

93

4) Double Negatives

 

 

items that use 2 negative expressions to convey a positive idea

94

2) Response Bias

  • (4) types

 

1) Acquiescence ("Yea-Saying")

2) Dissension ("Nay-Saying")

3) Deviation

4) Social Desirability

95

1) Acquiescence ("Yea-Saying")

2) Dissension ("Nay-Saying")

 

1) tendency to agree with items regardless of their content

2) endency to disagree with items regardless of their content

96

Solution to Response Bias caused by Acquiescence & Dissension?

Balanced Items

 

example:

T/F Qs:

some of my high school friends enjoy reading

none of my high school friends enjoy reading

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3) Deviation

 

tendency to answer items in extreme way regardless of their content

 

98

4) Social Desirability

 

tendency to answer questions in socially acceptable way regardless of correctness of answer

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Solution to Response Bias? (specifically Deviation & Social Desirability)

 

Forced-choice Inventory

Example:

Choose A or B:

  • A: I like to read in my spare time
  • B: I am active in sports
  • A: I feel like blaming others when things go wrong
  • B: I feel that I am generally inferior to others

100

General tips on Questionnaire Wording (5)

1) avoid words with double meaning

2) avoid overly lengthy questions

3) ask questions based on respondent's own experience

4) Design entire questionnaire around theoretical rationale

5) Pre-test questionnaire on test sample

101

Quantitative Methods → 3) Surveys

 

administering interview/questionnaire to sample of individuals to estimate characteristic of population

102

Confidence level

probability that true population value falls within tolerance level 

103

Tolerance Level (Precision)

range of values within which true population value falls with specified probability

104

Reasons for Sampling (3) 

1) Feasability → less expensive/time-consuming 

2) Accuracy → less errors (people may not answer seriously or misinterpret data) 

3) Unobtrusiveness

105

Sample size determined by? (3) 

1) confidence & tolerance levels 

2) type of sampling design used

3) variability (increases with increased size)

106

Sampling Designs (2) 

Probability Sampling

Nonprobability Sampling 

107

Probability vs. Nonprobability sampling

 

Probability →known probability of each person falling in sample 

→allows for statistical analysis

Nonprobability → unknown probability of individual being in sample

108

Types of Probability Sampling (3) 

1) Simple Random

2) Cluster

3) Stratified

109

Probability Sampling → 1) Simple Random

Sampling such that every member of population has equal & independent chance of being selected

110

Probability Sampling → 2) Cluster Sampling 

random sampling in (2) phases:

  • primary selection units (cluster, groups
  • secondary selection units (individuals within groups

111

Probability Sampling → 3) Stratified Sampling 

random sampling from mutually exclusive & exhaustive strata in population 

112

Types of Stratified Sampling (2) 

1) Proportional Stratified Sampling

2) Equal Stratified Sampling 

113

1) Proportional stratified sampling

sample size of each stratum is proportionate to population size

(each stratum has the same sampling fraction)

114

2) Equal Stratified Sampling 

each strata is determined percentage of sample 

115

Haphazard Sampling
 

according to who is around 

116

Purposive Sampling
 

non-random sample chosen for some characteristic it possesses

117

Convenience Sampling
 

chosen for availability/convenience

118

Systematic Sampling
 

picked in systematic way (violates independance principle)

119

Quota Sampling

try to match up characteristics (ex. male vs female)

120

Quantitative Methods → (4) Psychological Tests 

administering standardized test to measure sample of individual’s behavior 

121

Psychological Tests - (4) types

1) Aptitude

2) Achievement

3) Personality

4) Projective 

122