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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (41)
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1

learning disability

difficulty in understanding or using spoken or written language or in doing mathematics

to be classified as a learning disability, the learning problem is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; intellectual disability; emotional disorders; or due to environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage

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dyslexia

a category of learning disabilities involving a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell

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dysgraphia

a learning disability that involves difficulty in handwriting

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dyscalculia

also known as a developmental arithmetic disorder; a learning disability that involves difficulty in math computation

5

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a disability in which children consistently show one or more of the following characteristics: 1) inattention, 2) hyperactivity, 3) impulsivity

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emotional and behavioral disorders

serious, persistent problems that involve relationships, aggression, depression, fears associated with personal or school matters, as well as other inappropriate socioemotional charcacteristics

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autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

also called pervasive developmental disorders, they range from the severe disorder labeled autistic disorder to the milder disorder called Asperger syndrome; children with these disorders are characterized by problems in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors

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autistic disorder

a severe autism spectrum disorder that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior

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Asperger syndrome

a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder in which the child has relatively good verbal language skills, milder nonverbal language problems, and a restricted range of interests and relationships

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individualized education plan (IEP)

a written statement that spells out a program specifically tailored to a child with a disability

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least restrictive environment (LRE)

a setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which children do not have a disability are educated

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inclusion

educating a child with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom

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seriation

the concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitive dimension (such as length)

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transivity

the ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions

15

neo-Piagetians

developmentalists who argue that Piaget got some things right but that his theory needs considerable revision; they have elaborated on Piaget's theory, giving more emphasis to information processing, strategies, and precise cognitive steps

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long-term memory

a relatively permanent type of memory that holds huge amounts of information for a long period of time

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working memory

a mental "workbench" where individuals manipulate and assemble information when making decisions, solving problems, and comprehending written and spoken language

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strategies

deliberate mental activities that improve the processing of information

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elaboration

an important strategy for remembering that involves engaging in more extensive processing of information

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fuzzy trace theory

states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: 1) verbatim memory trace, and 2) gist; in this theory, older children's better memory is attributed to the fuzzy traces created by extracting the gist of information

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critical thinking

thinking reflectively and productively, as well as evaluating evidence

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mindfulness

being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life's everyday activities and tasks

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creative thinking

the ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems

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convergent thinking

thinking that produces one correct answer and is characteristic of the kind of thinking tested by standardized intelligence tests

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divergent thinking

thinking that produces many answers to the same question and is characteristic of creativity

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metacognition

cognition about cognition, or knowing about knowing

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brainstorming

a technique in which individuals are encouraged to come up with creative ideas in a group, play off each other's ideas, and say almost anything that comes to mind

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intelligence

problem-solving skills and the ability to learn from and adapt to the experiences of every day life

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individual differences

the stable, consistent ways in which people differ from each other

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mental age (MA)

Binet's measure of an individual's level of mental development, compared with that of others

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intelligence quotient (IQ)

a person's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100

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normal distribution

a symmetrical distribution with most scores falling in the middle of the possible range of scores and a few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range

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triarchic theory of intelligence

Sternberg's theory that intelligence consists of analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence

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culture-fair tests

tests of intelligence that are designed to be free of cultural bias

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intellectual disability

a condition of limited mental ability in which the individual 1) has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test, 2) has difficulty adapting to the demands of everyday life, and 3) first exhibits these characteristics by age 18

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organic intellectual disability

a genetic disorder or condition involving brain damage that is linked to a low level of intellectual functioning

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cultural-familial intellectual disability

condition in which there is no evidence of organic brain damage but the individual's IQ generally is between 50 and 70

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gifted

having above-average intelligence (an IQ of 130 or higher) and/or superior talent for something

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metalinguistic awareness

refers to knowledge about language, such as understanding what a preposition is or being able to discuss the sounds of a language

40

whole-language approach

an approach to reading instruction based on the idea that instruction should parallel children's natural language learning; reading materials should be whole and meaningful

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phonics approach

the idea that reading instruction should teach the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds