Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

Developmental Psychology > Chapter 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (24)
Loading flashcards...
1

self-understanding

the child's cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child's self-conceptions

2

moral development

development that involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people

3

heteronomous morality

the first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring from approximately 4 to 7 years of age; justice and rules are conceived as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people

4

autonomous morality

in Piaget's theory, older children (about 10 years of age) become aware that rules and laws are created by people and that in judging an action should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences

5

immanent justice

the concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately

6

conscience

an internal regulation of standards of right and wrong that involves integrating moral thought, feeling, and behavior

7

gender identity

the sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old

8

gender role

a set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act, and feel

9

gender typing

acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

10

social role theory

a theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women

11

psychoanalytic theory of gender

a theory deriving from Freud's view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent, by approximately 5 or 6 years of age renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings, and subsequently identifies with the same-sex parent, unconsciously adopting the same-sex parent's characteristics

12

social cognitive theory of gender

a theory emphasizing that children's gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for gender-appropriate and gender-innapropriate behavior

13

gender schema theory

the theory that gender typing emerges as children develop gender schemas of their culture's gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior

14

authoritarian parenting

a restrictive, punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect their work and effort; places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange; associated with children's social incompetence

15

authoritative parenting

a parenting style in which parents encourage their children to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions; extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturing toward the child; associated with children's social competence

16

neglectful parenting

a style of parenting in which the parent is uninvolved in the child's life; it is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control

17

indulgent parenting

a style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them; is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control

18

coparenting

support parents provide for each other in jointly raising their children

19

sensorimotor play

behavior engaged in by infants that lets them derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas

20

practice play

play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports

21

pretense/symbolic play

play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol

22

social play

play that involves social interactions with peers

23

constructive play

play that combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas; occurs when children engage in self-regulated creation or construction of a product or solution

24

games

activities engaged in for pleasure that include rules and often competition with one or more individuals