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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (28)
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1

perspective taking

the social cognitive process involved in assuming the perspective of others and understanding their thoughts and feelings

2

self-esteem

the global evaluative dimension of the self; also referred to as self-worth or self-image

3

self-concept

domain-specific evaluations of the self

4

self-efficacy

the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes

5

preconventional reasoning

the lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development; the individual's moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishment

6

heteronomous morality

Kohlberg's first stage of preconventional reasoning in which moral thinking is tied to punishment

7

individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange

Kohlberg's second stage of preconventional reasoning, in which individuals pursue their own interests but also let others do the same

8

conventional reasoning

the second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development; at this level, individuals abide by certain standards, but these are standards set by others such as parents or society

9

mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity

Kohlberg's third stage of moral development; individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgments

10

social systems morality

the fourth stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which moral judgments are based on understanding the social order, law, justice, and duty

11

post conventional reasoning

the highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development; the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code

12

social contract or utility and individual rights

the fifth Kohlberg stage; individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law

13

universal ethical principals

the sixth and highest stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, in which individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights

14

justice perspective

a moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual and in which individuals independently make moral decisions

15

care perspective

the moral perspective of Carol Gilligan, which views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others

16

domain theory of moral development

theory that identifies different domains of social knowledge and reasoning, including moral, social, conventional, and personal domains; these domains arise from children's and adolescents' attempts to understand and deal with different forms of social experience

17

social conventional reasoning

thoughts about social consensus and convention, in contrast with moral reasoning, which stresses ethical issues

18

gender stereotypes

broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males

19

androgyny

the presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual

20

popular children

children who are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers

21

average children

children who receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from peers

22

neglected children

children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers

23

rejected children

children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend and are actively disliked by their peers

24

controversial children

children who are frequently nominated both as a best friend and as being disliked by their peers

25

intimacy in friendships

self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts

26

constructivist approach

a learner-centered approach that emphasizes the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher

27

direct instruction approach

a structured, teacher-centered approach that is characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic skills, high expectations for students' progress, maximum time spent on learning tasks, and efforts to keep negative affect to a minimum

28

mindset

the cognitive view, either fixed or growth, that individuals develop for themselves