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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (66):
1

Gerontologists

Specialists who study ageing

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We can no longer define old age my chronological years alone: we also must take into account peoples physical and psychological well-being, they’re functional ages. Explain the three groups of people according to functional ages

The young old are healthy and active. The old old have some health problems and difficulties with daily activities. The oldest old are frail and need to care

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Ageism

Prejudice and discrimination directed at older people

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Primary aging

Also known as senescence. Primary ageing is ageing that involves universal an irreversible changes that due to genetic programming occur as people get older

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Secondary ageing

Changes in physical and cognitive functioning that are due to illness health habits and other individual differences but are not due to increased agent self and are not inevitable

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Peripheral slowing hypothesis

The theory that suggests that overall processing speed to clients in the peripheral nervous system with increasing age

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Generalized slowing hypothesis

The theory that processing in all parts of the nervous system including the brain is less efficient as we age

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Cataracts

Cloudy or OPK areas on the lens of the eye that interfere with the passage of light

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Intraocular lens implants

When a plastic lenses permanently placed in the eye

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Glaucoma

Glaucoma occurs when pressure in the flute of the eye increases either because the fluid cannot drain properly or because too much fluid is

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Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration leads to a gradual deterioration of the centre of the retina leaving only proof feel vision

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Age related macular did generation effects of the_______

Macula, a yellowish area near the right now which visual perception is most acute

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Arthritis

Inflammation of one or more joints

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Hypertension

High blood pressure. Around 1/3 of older adults have it

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Dementia

The most common mental disorder of older adults, they cover several diseases Each of which includes serious memory loss and companied by the clients and other mental functioning

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Alzheimer’s disease

A progressive brain disorder that produces memory loss and confusion

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Beta amyloid precursor protein

When this protein goes awry Alzheimer’s disease occurs

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Genetic programming theories of ageing

Series that suggest that her body is DNA contains a built in time limit for the reproduction of human cells

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Wear and tear theories Of ageing

The theory that the mechanical functions of the body simply where out with age

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Life expectancy

The average age of death for members of a population

21

Telomere therapy

Hello music are tiny areas at the tip of chromosomes that grow shorter each time a cell divides and eventually disappear ending cell replication. Some scientists believe that if telomeres could be lengthened Adrian could be slowed. Researchers are now looking for genes that control the production of telomerase an enzyme that seems to regulate the length of telomeres

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Unlocking longevity jeans

Certain genes control the body’s ability to cope with environmental challenges and physical adversity. If hardest those dreams may provide a way to increase the lifespan. One particular Lee promising family of genes is sortions, which might regulate and promote longer life

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Reducing free radicals through antioxidant drugs

Free radicals – unstable molecules that dripped through the body – damage other sales and leave the evening. Antioxidant drugs that can reduce the number of free radicals might eventually be perfect. Furthermore it might be possible to insert into human cell dreams that produce enzymes that act as antioxidants. In the meantime nutritionists urge a diet rich in antioxidants vitamins which are found in fruits and vegetables

24

Restricting calories

For at least the last decade researchers have known that laboratory rats were fed and extremely low calorie diet providing 30 to 50% of their normal intake often live 30% longer than better for rats, providing they get all the vitamins and minerals they need. The reason appears to be that they produce if you were free radicals. Researchers hope to develop drugs that maybe the effects of calorie restriction without forcing people to feel hungry all the time

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The bionic solution: replacing worn out organs

Heart transplants liver transplant lung transplants – we live in an age when replacing damaged or disease organs seems nearly routine

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Cohort effect

Influences attributable to growing up in a particular era. For example if a younger group – because of when they grew up Dash has more education on average they will probably do better on an IQ test then people from an older generation for that reason alone. Furthermore older people might do worse on any intelligence test with a timed portion simply because of their slower reaction time

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Plasticity

The degree to which a developing structure or behaviour is susceptible to changes based on experience

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EpisodicMemories

Relate to specific life experience. For example when he first visited Vancouver

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Semantic memories

General knowledge and fax for example the capital of New Brunswick

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Implicit memories

Memories about which people are not consciously aware, such as how to ride a bike

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Autobiographical memory

Memories of information about one’s own life

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Pollyanna principle

Pleasant memories are more likely to be recalled then unpleasant memories

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Exclamations for memory changes in older people focus on three main categories

Environmental factors of information processing deficits and biological factors

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Environmental factors for changing in memory and old age

Certain environmental factors common to many older adults can cause the client and memory. For example older adults often take prescription drugs that hinder memory in this rather than age might account for the lower performance on memory tasks


In addition retirees no longer facing job challenges might use their memory less

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Memory changes in old age: information processing deficits

Memoral he declines might also be linked to changes in information processing capabilities. The ability to inhibit irrelevant information and thoughts to interfere with problem-solving made to Kris and the speed of information processing made a client. Another information processing of you suggests that older adults lose the ability to concentrate on new material and have difficulty paying attention to the appropriate stimuli and organizing material and memory. According to this information processing deficit approach, which has substantial research support, older adults use less efficient processes to receive information from memory. This leads to the clients and recall abilities.

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Biological factors

The last of the major approaches concentrates on biological factors according to this view memory changes are a result of brain and body deterioration. For instance of the clients and episodic memory may be related to the deterioration of the frontal lobe of the brain or the reduction in estrogen. Some studies also show a loss of sales and the hippocampus which is critical to memory. However some memory deficits occur without any evidence of underline biological deterioration.

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Ego integrity versus despair stage

Ericksons final stage of life characterized by a process of looking back over one’s life evaluating and coming to terms with it

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Pecks Developmental tasks

Text developmental tasks include redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work roll, body transcendence versus bro body preoccupation, ego transcendence versus eagle preoccupation.

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Redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work roll

The theory that those in old age must read to find them selves in ways that do not relate to their work roles or occupations

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Body transcendence versus body preoccupation

A period in which people must learn to cope with and move beyond changes and physical capabilities as a result of ageing

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Ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation

The period in which older adults must come to grips with their coming death

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Neugartens study - coping with aging

This study include different personality types when coping with Adrian. Disintegrated and diss organize personalities, passive dependent personalities, defended personalities, integrated personalities.

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Disintegrated and disorganize personalities

Some people are unable to except ageing and experience to spare as they get older. They often find themselves in long-term care facilities

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Passive dependent personalities

Others become fearful of falling ill of the future of their own inability to cope. They are so fearful that they might seek help from family and care providers even when they don’t need it

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Defended personalities

Others respond to the fear of ageing quite differently – by trying to stop it in its tracks. They might attempt to act young exercising vigourously and engaging and you’ve liked it really is. Unfortunately they may set unrealistic expectations and run the risk of disappointment

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Integrated personalities

The most successful individuals Cope comfortably with ageing. They except it with a sense of self dignity

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Life review

The point in life I wish people examine and evaluate their lives

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Age stratification theories

The view that an unequal distribution of economic resources power and privilege exist among people are different stages of the life course

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Wisdom

Expert knowledge in the practical aspects of life

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Disengagement theory

The period in late at all of that marks a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical psychological and social levels

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ActivityThierry

The theory suggesting that successful ageing occurs when people maintain the interests activities and social interactions with which they were involved during middle age

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Continuity theory

The theory suggesting that the people need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society in order to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem

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Selective optimization

The process by which people concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas

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Continuing care community

A community that offers in varmint in which all the residents are of retirement age or older and need to various levels of care

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Adult daycare facilities

Facilities in which older adults receive care only during the day: they spend nights and weekends in their own home

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Skilled nursing facilities

Facilities that provide full-time nursing care for people who have chronic illnesses or who are recovering from a temporary medical condition

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Institutionalism

Psychological state in which people in nursing homes develop apathy and different and the lack of caring about themselves

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Learned helplessness

I believe that one has no control over one’s environment

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Retirement stages stage one honeymoon.

People engage in a variety of activities such as travel that were previously hindered by work

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Retirement: disenchantment

The second phase following retirement in which they conclude that retirement is not all they thought it would be because they missed The stimulation and companionship of work or find it hard to keep busy

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Retirement: re-orientation

Third phase of retirement in which retirees reconsider their auctions in becoming Asian knew more for filling activities

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Retirement routine stage

If we orientation is successful at least to that retirement routine stage, in which they come to grips with the reality is a retirement and feel for filled. Not all people reach the stage some people feel distant chanted for years.

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The last day as a retirement: termination

Although for some people this occurs when they go back to work, for most if all is major physical deterioration. In this case help you come so bad that the person can a longer function independently

64

Three stages of adjusting to widow hood

Stage one: preparation – spouses prepare [in some cases, for years or even decades] for the eventual death of a partner. For example the purchase of life insurance the preparation of a will and the decision to have children who might eventually provide care in one’s old age. Each of the steps prepare for the eventuality that one will be widowed and will acquire some degree of assistance.



Second stage: grief and mourning – this stage is an immediate reaction to the death of a spouse. It starts with shock and pain of loss and continues as the survivor works through the emotions lost brings up. The timer person spends in this. Depends on the support receive from others as well as personality factors. In some cases, grief and mourning may last for years, all others it last a few months



Adaptation: patient is the final stage of morning and I have another Tatian the window to individual start a new life. This begins with the exceptions of loss and continues with the reorganization of rolls and the formation of new friendships. Your dad patient stage also encompasses a period of re-integration in which a new identity – as an unmarried person – is developed

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Social support

Assistance and comfort supply to buy another person or network of caring interested people

66

Elder abuse

The physical or psychological miss treatment or neglect of older adults