Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (59)
What does the endocrine system consist of?
A group of integrated glands and cells that secrete hormones
Endocrine disorders can result from what?
Too much or too little hormone production
A problem with hormone control and production
What is hyperpituitarism?
Excess hormone production by the anterior pituitary gland
What is hyperpituitarism caused by?
A benign tumor called a pituitary adenoma, that produces growth hormone
What results when hyperpituitarism occurs before the closure of long bones?
What results when hypersecretion occurs during adult life?
Who does hyperpituitarism affect?
Men and women in their 40’s
What are the clinics features and oral manifestations of hyperpituitarism?
Enlarged hands and feet
Increased rib size
Enlargement of maxilla and mandible
Enlargement of nasal bones
Voice deepening bc of enlarged sinus
May have thick lips and macroglossia
What disease is hyperthyroidism associated with?
What is hyperthyroidism?
Excess production of thyroid hormone
An autoimmune disorder that most commonly causes hyperthyroidism
Who is hyperthyroidism more common in?
Women in their 30s and 40s
A significant clinical characteristic often seen in patients with Graves’ disease
Exopthalmos (protrusion of eyeballs)
Oral manifestations of hyperthyroidism
Premature exfoliation of deciduous teeth and premature eruption of permanent teeth
Osteoporosis may affect alveolar bone
Caries and perio develops more rapidly
What is hypothyroidism?
A decreased output of thyroid hormone
Infancy and childhood hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism I’m older children and adults
Hypothyroidism oral manifestations in infants
Delayed eruption of teeth
Oral manifestation of hypothyroidism in adults
Most commonly prescribed hormone replacement therapy for hypothyroidism
A chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by abnormally high blood glucose levels
High blood glucose levels
What does diabetes mellitus result from?
A lack of insulin, defective insulin that does not work to lower blood glucose levels, or increased insulin resistance caused by obesity
What system is the most severely affected by diabetes?
Clinical features of NIDDM
Decreased resistance to infection
Skin infections: furuncles
Can affect nervous system
A thickening of the blood vessel wall from fibrofatty plaques, can easily to impaired circulation, causing impaired oxygenation and nutrition in tissue
Uncontrolled diabetes =
Uncontrolled periodontal conditions
What is Addison disease?
Insufficient production of adrenal steroids
What are the causes of adrenal gland destruction?
deep fungal infections
What are the clinical manifestations of Addison disease?
Stimulation of melanocytes
(Bronze skin and macular on oral mucosa)
Treatment of Addison disease
Steroid replacement therapy
Clinical features of Addison disease do not appear until how much of the adrenal gland has been destroyed?
What is hypercortisolism known as?
What is Cushing syndrome caused by?
Sustained increase in glucocorticosteroid levels
What is the most significant and obvious clinical feature of Cushing syndrome?
Do the signs for Cushing syndrome develop fast or slow?
What are blood disorders?
Disorders of red blood cells and hemoglobin
Disorders of white blood cells
A reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood that is most often related to a decrease in the number of circulating red blood cells
Clinical signs of anemia
Pallor of skin and oral mucosa
Erythema and atrophy of oral mucosa
Loss of filiform and fungiform papillae on dorsum of tongue
An insufficient amount of iron is supplied to bone marrow for RBC development
Iron deficiency anemia
Possible causes for iron deficiency anemia
Deficient iron intake
Blood loss from menstrual bleeding or chronic GI bleeding
Poor iron absorption
Pregnancy or infancy
Caused by a deficiency in intrinsic factor
Which anemia is probably an autoimmune disorder?
What vitamin is needed for DNA synthesis?
What is folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia associated with?
Increased metabolic requirements
may be found with alcoholism or pregnancy
An inherited blood disorder predominantly in black individuals or those of Mediterranean or Asian origin. More common in women before age 30. RBCs in a sickle shape
Sickle cell anemia
What can oral cancer be treated with?
Or a combo
When does mucositis begin?
About the second week of radiation therapy and subsides a few weeks after its completion
Erythematous and ulcerated mucosa
Pts may have difficulty eating, pain on swallowing, and loss of taste
Destruction of major salivary glands (may result in xerostomia)
Pts are prone to rampant caries and oral candidiasis and osteoradionecrosis
Drugs for this cancer therapy affect nasal cells of the epithelium
Mucositis and oral ulceration are common complications
A decrease in all blood cells may occur
Lowered RBC count can lead to
Lowered WBC count can lead to
Lowered platelet counts can lead to
Suppresses the immune system and can lead to candidiasis and oral infections
Which drugs can cause gingival enlargement?
What is a complication associated with bisphosphonate therapy?