Chapter 7 - part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 - part 1 Deck (38)
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1

Neoplasia

New growth
Cells exhibit uncontrolled proliferation

2

Neoplasm

A new growth of tissue in which growth is uncontrolled and progressive

3

Tumor

Means swelling, but is often used as a synonym for neoplasm

4

Agents that have been shown to cause neoplastic transformation of cells

Chemicals: Hundreds of different ones
Viruses: Oncogenic viruses
Radiation: sunlight, x-rays, nuclear fission

5

Benign tumor or neoplasia

Remains localized
May be encapsulated with fibrous connective tissue
It can invade adjacent tissues, but does not have the ability to spread to distant sites

6

Malignant tumor (cancer)

Invades and destroys surrounding tissue
Has the ability to spread throughout the body

7

Benign tumors almost always resemble

normal tissue

8

Pleomorphic

The cells of malignant tumors often vary in size

9

Hyperchromatic

The nuclei of these cells are darker than those of normal cells and exhibit an increased nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio

10

This suffix is used to indicate a tumor

oma

11

Lipoma

Benign tumor of fat

12

Osteoma

benign tumor of bone

13

4 types of tissue in the human body

Epithelium/epithelial tissue
muscle tissue
connective tissue
nervous tissue

14

Carcinoma

Malignant tumor of epithelium/epithelial tissue

15

Sarcoma

Malignant tumor of connective or non-epithelial tissue

16

Osteosarcoma

Malignant tumor of bone

17

Squamous cell carcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma

malignant tumor of squamous epithelium

18

Treatment of benign tumors

Treated by surgical excision, eithet wide local excision or enucleation

19

Treatment of malignant tumors

Treated by surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, often a combination

20

Three different types of epithelial tumors found in the oral cavity

From squamous epithelium
From salivary gland epithelium
From odontogenic epithelium

21

Tumors of squamous epithelium

papilloma
premalignant lesions
squamous cell carcinoma
vemucous carcinoma
basal cell carcinoma - very common

22

Papilloma

Benign tumor of squamous epithelium
A small exophytic pedunculate or sessile growth
May be white or the color of normal mucosa
Most often on the soft palate or tongue

23

Premalignant lesions

Leukoplakia
Erythoplakia
Epithelial dysplasia

24

Leukoplakia

White plaque
Biopsy is necessary to establish a definitive diagnosis

25

Erythoplakia

Oral mucosal lesion appearing as a smooth red patch or a granular red and velvety patch
Located on floor of the mouth, tongue, and soft palate
Less common

26

Speckled leukoplakia

A lesion that shows a mix of red and white areas

27

Oral submucous fibrosis

Chronic oral mucosal disease that is associated with betel-quid chewing
Increased deposition of collagen in the oral mucosa results in severe restriction of movement of the oral mucosa tissue

28

Epithelial dysplasia

Histologic diagnosis of a premalignant condition
Precede squamous cell carcinoma

29

What does epithelial dysplasia look like and location

Erythematous lesion, a white lesion, or a mixed (red and white) lesion
Often on the floor of the mouth or tongue

30

Squamous cell carcinoma

A malignant tumor of squamous epithelium
Usually metastasizes to lymph nodes in the neck and then to distant sites such as the lungs and liver