Chapter 9: Cell Division Flashcards Preview

BIOL1406 > Chapter 9: Cell Division > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9: Cell Division Deck (28):
1

-occurs in many plants and protists and some animals
-used in Mitosis

vegetative or asexual reproduction

2

splitting or dividing into two parts

binary fission

3

(a growth process) divides the replicated DNA equally and precisely, generating daughter cells which are exact genetic copies of the parent cell

mitosis

4

the number of chromosomes sets in a cell or species

ploidy

5

some microorganisms have only one copy of each type of chromosome in their nuclei

haploid

6

many plant species, have three, four, or even more complete sets of chromosomes in each cell

polyploid

7

-two chromosomes of each pair in a diploid cell
-one is from the mother, the other from the father

homologous chromosomes

8

(a process of sexual reproduction) produces daughter nuclei with half the number of chromosomes of the parenta nucleus
-genetic variation

Meiosis

9

an image of a complete set of metaphase chromosomes, arranged according to size and shape

karyotype

10

the cell grows
(interphase)

G1 phase

11

DNA replicates and chromosomal proteins are duplicated (interphase)

S phase

12

cell growth continues and the cell prepares for mitosis (interphase)

G2 phase

13

non dividing cells can also enter into a special phase

G0 phase

14

the cell cycle?

M (mitosis) phase, G1, S, G2, G0

15

two identical copies

sister chromatids

16

the equal distribution of chromosomes into each of two daughter nuclei

chromosome segregation

17

chromosomes replication and segregation in the mitotic cell cycle creates a group of genetically identical cells

clones of the original cell

18

phases of mitosis in order?

prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

19

DNA condenses into chromosomes

prophase

20

chromosomes line up along cell equator

metaphase

21

sister chromatids of each chromosome pulled to opposite poles of cell

anaphase

22

nuclear membrane reforms around separated chromosomes

telophase

23

cytoplasm and plasma membranes of 2 new cells divide

cytokinesis

24

spindle microtubules grow from centrosomes at opposite spindle poles toward the center of the cell

prometaphase

25

forms on each sister chromatid at the centromere

kinetochore

26

the point where chromatids are joined

centromere

27

the centrosome contains a pair of these which are duplicated and divided

centrioles

28

in plants, this forms between the daughter nuclei and grows laterally until it divides the cytoplasm in two

cell plate