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Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Communication Deck (39)
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States what an organisation expects to achieve over a set period



Are the actions that an organisation takes to achieve it's specific goals



Are individuals or groups with an interest in the future growth and success of the business eg- shareholders, managers


What is the relationship between communication and business objectives

Business objectives, whether they are maximising profit, improving market share or developing a new product, must be communicated to employees if they are to be successfully realised


Describe the ways in which business objectives can be communicated to staff in a business

- presentation
- memo or email
- posting on a business's intranet


How can effective communication increase a business' success

- customers start to identify with a business and the product or services it offers, leading to increased sales
- suppliers more likely to supply stock on time
- shareholders become confident of the business plan
- community develops a positive image of the business


What are the two types of communication

Internal and external


Internal Communication

Are those that take place within the business, can be both formal and informal


Formal Internal Communication Channels

Involves making use of the official communication channels of the business


What are the three different flows of communication within a business

1. Top Down communication- information sent from managers down to employees
2. Bottom Up Communication- information sent from employees flow up to managers
3. Sideways communication - involves the flow of information between people of similiar status or position


Top- down channel

CEO -> General Manager -> Divisional Manager -> team Leader -> non managerial staff


Bottom up channel

Non managerial staff -> team leader -> divisional manager -> general manager -> CEO


Sideways channel

Non Managers -> other non managers
Team Leaders -> other team leaders
Divisional Managers -> other divisional managers
General Managers -> other general managers
CEOs -> other CEOs


Informal communication channels

Involves the business making use of unofficial means of exchanging information eg - grapevine


The Grapevine

Is the unofficial and informal communication system where employees sharing information, such at during breaks or on the way home from work, pass on messages with the risk of rumours spreading that are based only part on the information


External Communication

Is concerned with how a business communicates with and is viewed by other businesses and stakeholders outside the business eg - suppliers and customers


What are the main purposes of internal communication

- Provide Information
- Gather Information
- Share Ideas
- Clarify Issues
- get to know people
- persuasion
- appraise employee performance


Define Communication

Is the exchange of information between people; the sending and receiving of messages


Main purposes of external communication

- Improve customer service
- Public Relations
- Confirm Arrangements
- Give Instructions
- Provide Information


What are the types of Communication

Verbal and Non Verbal


Verbal Communication

Is the written or oral use of words to communicate


Written Communication

verbal communication which is used by mangers to pass on ideas and information inside and outside the business eg-email, fax, mobile phones


Advantages and Disadvantages of Written Communication

- permanent record
- more time can into preparation and proofreading
- messages can convey authority
- complex info can be read and re read
- Feedback is often slower and more difficult to recieve
- Impersonal nature
- TIme consuming
- Expensive to print and distribute


Oral Communication

Verbal Communication which involves speaking to another person and is one of the most common communication methods used in business.


Advantages and Disadvantages of Oral Communication

- Communicators can get to know each other.
- Feedback is instantaneous.
- Nonverbal gestures may reinforce the spoken message.
- It is quick and usually accurate.
- Voice tone can be used to stress important points.
- It allows for the personal touch.
- There is flexibility to modify the approach depending on the response.
- Messages can be ‘off the record’ and ‘private’.
- Usually, no permanent record is kept.
- Confusion can occur when messages are not clear.
- It can be time consuming.
- Sometimes it is difficult to terminate.
- It requires effective listening skills.
- Nonverbal gestures may give an opposite meaning.
- It is difficult to distribute to a wide audience.
- Messages cannot be proofread



is any message that is not written or spoken. Nonverbal communication consists of body language (posture, facial expressions, placement of limbs and proximity to others) and visual symbols.


Body Language Communication

Non-verbal communication with the use of gestures, facial expressions and posture to communicate.


Advantages and Disadvantages of Body Language Communication

-It reinforces the oral message.
- It bypasses language barriers.
- It provides instant feedback on a message.
- Some gestures are universal in their meaning.
- It is a powerful tool for handling serious and sensitive situations.
- It is more reliable than oral expressions.
- It can complicate oral communication by giving contradictory messages.
-There is no universal meaning to gestures.
- People can be unaware of body language implications.
- It may reveal more than is intended.
- It can be misinterpreted.


Visual Communication

Nonverbal communication which is the use of symbols to communicate and can be a powerful way of transmitting information


Advantages and Disadvantages of Visual Communication

- It reaches a large audience.
- It is often easier to remember.
- Usually, it is a relatively fast method of communicating.
- It readily gains people’s attention.
- It does not rely on language skill to communicate the message.
- It can be expensive, especially if technological equipment is used.
- It does not contain a lot of information.
- Misinterpretation of the message is possible.
- Possible confusion can occur as a result of the proliferation of so many symbols.


Appropriate Communication Methods for Planning (setting and communicating objectives)

Attending board meetings
Writing documents
Speaking at functions
Preparing budge


Appropriate Communication Methods for Organising (ensuring employees know the task they are expected to perform)

Meeting with subordinates
Writing and answering letters, emails, phone calls, memorandums
Preparing rosters
Writing and distributing policies and procedures


Appropriate Communication Methods for Leading (motivating employees)

Conducting presentations
Meeting with subordinates
Negotiating and bargaining face to face
Producing and distributing a company newsletter


Appropriate Communication Methods for Controlling (monitoring the performance of employees and the business)

Conducting review sessions
Conducting media interviews
Writing reports
Issuing media releases
Speaking to outsiders


Barriers to communication

Language - Jargon, Discriminatory Language, Negative
Improper Attitude - eg superior attitude
Information Overload
Cultural Differences
The physical environment
Hearing but not listening



When a sender manipulates information so the receiver will see it more favourably


Ethical COmmunication

Means that the information conveyed meets our standards of what we consider right or acceptable behaviour


Examples of Unethical COmmunication

- Plagiarism
- Making false, exaggerated or misleading statements to or about others, or inventing false stories about your own achievements
- Misusing communication channels, such as using business email or facebook inappropriatley


Laws that affect communication

- Australian Competiton and Consumer Commission (ACCC)
- Competiton and Consumer Act 2010 (Cwlth)
- Prices Surveillance Act 1983 (Cwlth).
These federal laws, together with state laws, often cover illegal behaviour in relation to communications.

The Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) is another body designed to ensure ethical communications behaviour. It regulates broadcasting, radio communications, telecommunications and online communications throughout Australia.