Flashcards in Chapter 9 - Communication Deck (39)
States what an organisation expects to achieve over a set period
Are the actions that an organisation takes to achieve it's specific goals
Are individuals or groups with an interest in the future growth and success of the business eg- shareholders, managers
What is the relationship between communication and business objectives
Business objectives, whether they are maximising profit, improving market share or developing a new product, must be communicated to employees if they are to be successfully realised
Describe the ways in which business objectives can be communicated to staff in a business
- memo or email
- posting on a business's intranet
How can effective communication increase a business' success
- customers start to identify with a business and the product or services it offers, leading to increased sales
- suppliers more likely to supply stock on time
- shareholders become confident of the business plan
- community develops a positive image of the business
What are the two types of communication
Internal and external
Are those that take place within the business, can be both formal and informal
Formal Internal Communication Channels
Involves making use of the official communication channels of the business
What are the three different flows of communication within a business
1. Top Down communication- information sent from managers down to employees
2. Bottom Up Communication- information sent from employees flow up to managers
3. Sideways communication - involves the flow of information between people of similiar status or position
Top- down channel
CEO -> General Manager -> Divisional Manager -> team Leader -> non managerial staff
Bottom up channel
Non managerial staff -> team leader -> divisional manager -> general manager -> CEO
Non Managers -> other non managers
Team Leaders -> other team leaders
Divisional Managers -> other divisional managers
General Managers -> other general managers
CEOs -> other CEOs
Informal communication channels
Involves the business making use of unofficial means of exchanging information eg - grapevine
Is the unofficial and informal communication system where employees sharing information, such at during breaks or on the way home from work, pass on messages with the risk of rumours spreading that are based only part on the information
Is concerned with how a business communicates with and is viewed by other businesses and stakeholders outside the business eg - suppliers and customers
What are the main purposes of internal communication
- Provide Information
- Gather Information
- Share Ideas
- Clarify Issues
- get to know people
- appraise employee performance
Is the exchange of information between people; the sending and receiving of messages
Main purposes of external communication
- Improve customer service
- Public Relations
- Confirm Arrangements
- Give Instructions
- Provide Information
What are the types of Communication
Verbal and Non Verbal
Is the written or oral use of words to communicate
verbal communication which is used by mangers to pass on ideas and information inside and outside the business eg-email, fax, mobile phones
Advantages and Disadvantages of Written Communication
- permanent record
- more time can into preparation and proofreading
- messages can convey authority
- complex info can be read and re read
- Feedback is often slower and more difficult to recieve
- Impersonal nature
- TIme consuming
- Expensive to print and distribute
Verbal Communication which involves speaking to another person and is one of the most common communication methods used in business.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Oral Communication
- Communicators can get to know each other.
- Feedback is instantaneous.
- Nonverbal gestures may reinforce the spoken message.
- It is quick and usually accurate.
- Voice tone can be used to stress important points.
- It allows for the personal touch.
- There is flexibility to modify the approach depending on the response.
- Messages can be ‘off the record’ and ‘private’.
- Usually, no permanent record is kept.
- Confusion can occur when messages are not clear.
- It can be time consuming.
- Sometimes it is difficult to terminate.
- It requires effective listening skills.
- Nonverbal gestures may give an opposite meaning.
- It is difficult to distribute to a wide audience.
- Messages cannot be proofread
is any message that is not written or spoken. Nonverbal communication consists of body language (posture, facial expressions, placement of limbs and proximity to others) and visual symbols.
Body Language Communication
Non-verbal communication with the use of gestures, facial expressions and posture to communicate.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Body Language Communication
-It reinforces the oral message.
- It bypasses language barriers.
- It provides instant feedback on a message.
- Some gestures are universal in their meaning.
- It is a powerful tool for handling serious and sensitive situations.
- It is more reliable than oral expressions.
- It can complicate oral communication by giving contradictory messages.
-There is no universal meaning to gestures.
- People can be unaware of body language implications.
- It may reveal more than is intended.
- It can be misinterpreted.
Nonverbal communication which is the use of symbols to communicate and can be a powerful way of transmitting information
Advantages and Disadvantages of Visual Communication
- It reaches a large audience.
- It is often easier to remember.
- Usually, it is a relatively fast method of communicating.
- It readily gains people’s attention.
- It does not rely on language skill to communicate the message.
- It can be expensive, especially if technological equipment is used.
- It does not contain a lot of information.
- Misinterpretation of the message is possible.
- Possible confusion can occur as a result of the proliferation of so many symbols.
Appropriate Communication Methods for Planning (setting and communicating objectives)
Attending board meetings
Speaking at functions
Appropriate Communication Methods for Organising (ensuring employees know the task they are expected to perform)
Meeting with subordinates
Writing and answering letters, emails, phone calls, memorandums
Writing and distributing policies and procedures
Appropriate Communication Methods for Leading (motivating employees)
Meeting with subordinates
Negotiating and bargaining face to face
Producing and distributing a company newsletter
Appropriate Communication Methods for Controlling (monitoring the performance of employees and the business)
Conducting review sessions
Conducting media interviews
Issuing media releases
Speaking to outsiders
Barriers to communication
Language - Jargon, Discriminatory Language, Negative
Improper Attitude - eg superior attitude
The physical environment
Hearing but not listening
When a sender manipulates information so the receiver will see it more favourably
Means that the information conveyed meets our standards of what we consider right or acceptable behaviour
Examples of Unethical COmmunication
- Making false, exaggerated or misleading statements to or about others, or inventing false stories about your own achievements
- Misusing communication channels, such as using business email or facebook inappropriatley