Chapter 9: Middle Childhood - Physical & Cognitive Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9: Middle Childhood - Physical & Cognitive Development Deck (72)
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1
Q

What is a ‘growth spurt?’

A

A period during which growth advances at a dramatically rapid rate compared with other periods.

2
Q

What is ‘reaction time?’

A

The amount of time required to respond to a stimulus.

3
Q

What is ‘attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?’

A

A disorder characterized by excessive inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity. Not all children with this disorder are hyperactive. Many children with the disorder have social difficulties due to their unique constellations of symptoms.
* 5% to 12% of school age children
* More physically active, impulsive, and/or less attentive

4
Q

What are treatment methods for children with ADHD?

A
  • Children are sometimes treated with stimulants, which trigger the cerebral cortex to inhibit more primitive brain areas (dopamine and noradrenaline)
  • CBT: 50% of people with ADHD also experience anxiety or depression
  • Behavioural modification: shaping appropriate behaviour by using rewards, such as praise, privilege, token system
  • Parenting training
5
Q

What is commonly misdiagnosed as ADHD?

A

Traumatic stress;

6
Q

What is ‘hyperactivity?’

A

Excessive restlessness and overactivity; characteristic of ADHD

7
Q

What are ‘stimulants?’

A

Drugs that increase the activity of the nervous system.

8
Q

What are ‘learning disabilities?’

A

Disorders that are characterized by inadequate development of specific academic, language, and speech skills.

9
Q

What is ‘dyslexia?’

A

A reading disorder characterized by letter reversal, mirror reading, slow reading, and reduced comprehension.
Affects phonological processing
* Difficulty in processing and remembering information

10
Q

What are contributing factors to someone having dyslexia?

A
  • Strong genetic component; leads to neurological and circulation problems in the left hemisphere of the brain, causing o2 deficiency;
  • Problems with the angular gyrus might give rise to problems as it makes it harder to associate letters with sounds
  • Phonological processing = impaired, harder to discriminate between sounds
11
Q

What does ‘classroom inclusion’ refer to?

A

Placing children with disabilities in classrooms with children without disabilities.

12
Q

What are ‘concrete operations?’

A

The third stage is Piaget’s scheme, characterized by flexible, reversible thought converting tangible objects and events.
* Thought to be reversible and flexible: adding numbers 2+5 = 5 is an operation. Subtracting 5-2 = 3 is the reverse of the operation. Subtracting 5-3 =2 demonstrates flexibility.
*Children engage in decentration (they can focus on multiple parts of a problem at once; they can now understand that a wide glass holds the same amount as a tall class bc they can focus on the two dimension height and width)
* ages 7 -12 years
* Generally focus on tangible objects rather than abstract ideas - why it is called “concrete.”

13
Q

What are examples of ‘concrete operations?’

A
  • Decentration
  • Transitivity
  • Seriation
  • Class inclusion
14
Q

What is ‘class inclusion’ refer to?

A

A skill acquired in the concrete operational stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory in which individuals can mentally process classes of objects and the relationships between their subcategories simultaneously.
* Classes being such things as ‘animals’ and sub-classes being such things as ‘dogs and cats’

15
Q

What are the differents between a child in the ‘pre-operational stage’ and the ‘concrete operational stage?’

A
  • Conservation: concrete children show an understanding of the laws of conservation: they know that objects can have several properties or dimensions; in the clay ball demonstration, they recognize that the loss in height compensates for the gain in width
  • Class exclusion: concrete children can focus on subclasses and larger classes; in the animal demonstration, they are able to answer that there are more animals (Q: 6 dogs and 4 cats, are there more annals or dogs?) while pre-operational children answer more dogs
16
Q

What does ‘decentration’ refer to?

A

Simultaneous focusing on more than one aspect or dimension of a problem or situation.

17
Q

What does ‘transitivity’ refer to?

A

The principle that if A > B, and B > C, then A > C

18
Q

What does ‘seriation’ refer to?

A

Placing objects in an order of series according to a property or trait.

19
Q

What does the ‘pre-conventional level’ refer to?

A

According to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgments are based largely on expectations of rewards and punishments.
* Stage 1: Judgements are guided by obedience and the prospect of consequences (punishment)
* Stage 2: Naively egotistic, instrumental orientation (thins are right when they satisfy people’s needs)

20
Q

What does the ‘conventional level’ refer to?

A

According to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgment largely reflects social rules and conventions.
* Stage 3: Good boy/good girl orientation (moral behaviour helps others and is socially approved)
*Stage 4: Law and order orientation (moral behaviour is doing one’s duty and showing respect for authority)

21
Q

What does the ‘post-conventional level’ refer to?

A

According to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgement is derived from moral principles, and people look to themselves to see moral standards.
* Stage 5: contractual, legalities orientation (one must weigh pressing human needs against sociality’s need to maintain social order)
* Stage 6: universal ethical principles orientation (people must follow universal ethical principles and their conscience, even if it means breaking the law)

22
Q

What is ‘sensory memory?’

A

The structure of memory is first encountered by sensory input; information is maintained in sensory memory for only a fraction of a second.

23
Q

What is ‘short-term memory?’

A

The structure of a memory that can hold a sensory stimulus for up to 30 seconds.
* improvement in efficient use of short-term memory in middle childhood

24
Q

What does ‘encode’ refer to?

A

To transform sensory input into a form that is more easily processed.

25
Q

What does ‘rehearsing’ refer to?

A

Repeating that aids in recall.

26
Q

What is ‘long-term memory?’

A

The memory structure capable of relatively permanent storage of information.

27
Q

What does ‘elaborative strategy’ refer to?

A

A method for increasing retention of new information by relating it to well-known information.

28
Q

What does ‘metacognition’ refer to?

A

Awareness of and control of one’s cognitive abilities.

29
Q

What is ‘metamemory?’

A

Knowledge of the functions and processes involved in one’s storage and retrieval of information.

30
Q

What does ‘intelligence’ refer to?

A

Defined by Wechsler as the “capacity to understand the world [and the] resourcefulness to cope with its challenges.
Combination of nature and nurture
○ Heritability around 40 to 60%
○ Sex differences are better explained by environmental factors
○ Changes in education and SES change test scores

31
Q

What does ‘achievement’ refer to?

A

Acquired competencies that are attained by an individual’s efforts and are presumed to be made possible by that individual’s abilities.

32
Q

What is the ‘intelligence quotient (IQ)’?

A

A score of an intelligence test.

33
Q

What is ‘mental age (MA)?’

A

The intellectual level at which a child is functioning.

34
Q

What is ‘chronological age (CA)?’

A

A person’s actual age.

35
Q

What does ‘cultural bias’ refer to?

A

A factor in intelligence tests that provides an advantage for test takers from certain cultural backgrounds.

36
Q

What does ‘culture-free’ mean?

A

Descriptive of a test in which cultural biases have been removed.

37
Q

What are ‘cultural-familial developmental challenges?’

A

Substandard intellectual performance stems from a lack of opportunity to acquire knowledge and skills.

38
Q

What does ‘heritability’ mean?

A

The degree to which the variations in a a trait from one person to another can be attributed to genetic factors.

39
Q

What does ‘word-recognition method’ mean?

A

A method for learning to read in which children come to recognize words through repeated exposure to them

40
Q

What does ‘phonetic method’ mean?

A

A method for learning to read in which children decode the sounds of words based on their knowledge of the sounds of letter and letter combinations

41
Q

What does ‘sight vocabulary’ mean?

A

Words that are not decoded but are immediately recognized because of familiarity with their overall shapes.

42
Q

What does ‘bilingual’ mean?

A

Using or capable of using two languages with equal or nearly equal facility.

43
Q

Describe trends in physical development in middle childhood:

A
  • Slow but steady growth: 5 to 8 cm (more than 2 inches) and 2.25 to 3.0 kg (5-7 pounds) per year
  • Brain development: Increases in the amount of myelin:
  • Increases the speed of electrical impulses between neurons
  • Selective attention, better attention control
  • decrease sin screentime
44
Q

Describe the trends in brain development in middle childhood:

A

Increases in the amount of myelin
* Increases the speed of electrical impulses between neurons
* Sensory and motor areas of the brain that aid in Motor development
* Reticular formation pathways to frontal lobes: Selective attention, better attention control
* Growth in frontal lobes: Towards the end of middle-childhood
* Lateralization of spatial perception/orientation
* Pathways between cerebellum and cortex become more myelinated = better coordination of vision and body movements

45
Q

Describe Piaget’s concrete operational stage:

A

Ages 7 -12 years - The third stage is Piaget’s scheme, characterized by flexible, reversible thought converting tangible objects and events.
* Thought to be reversible and flexible: adding numbers 2+5 = 5 is an operation. Subtracting 5-2 = 3 is the reverse of the operation. Subtracting 5-3 =2 demonstrates flexibility.
*Children engage in decentration (they can focus on multiple parts of a problem at once; they can now understand that a wide glass holds the same amount as a tall class bc they can focus on the two dimension height and width)
* Generally focus on tangible objects rather than abstract ideas - why it is called “concrete.”
* Inductive logic

46
Q

Discuss Kohlberg’s theories of moral development:

A

Kohlberg believes that moral reasoning undergoes the same cognitive developmental pattern around the world; the morals consideration of children are influenced by cultural environment and cognitive development. The levels are:
* Level 1: Preconventional (early childhood)
* Level 2: Conventional ( middle childhood)
* Level 3: Postconvential (adolescent)

The stages are:
* Stage 1: consequences of behaviour
* Stage 2: satisfying needs
* Stage 3: social approval
* Stage 4: following duty and respect for authority
* Stage 5: need to maintain social order
* Stage 6: universal ethical principles (even against law)

47
Q

Describe developments in information processing in middle childhood:

A

Key elements in children’s information processing capabilities include development in:
* selective attention
* storage and retrieval o sensory, short-term, long term memory
* recall memory
* metacognition and metamemory

48
Q

What does ‘comorbidity’ mean?

A

the simultaneous presence of two or more diseases or medical conditions in a patient.

49
Q

What is CTS?

A

Chile Traumatic Stress; symptoms usually include:
* feelings of helplessness, uncertainty, vulnerability
* Increase arousal, edginess, agitation
* Avoidance
* Feelings of guilt or shame
* Alertness
* Reckless, aggressive, or self-destructive behaviour

50
Q

What are the overlapping symptoms of CTS and ADHD?

A
  • Difficulty concentrating and learning in school
  • Easily distracted
  • Often doesn’t seem to listen
  • Disorganization
  • Restless
  • Difficulty sleeping
51
Q

What are the gender differences in motor development?

A
  • Girls are better coordinated
  • Boys are stronger and faster
52
Q

Describe the trends in obesity in middle childhood:

A
  • Around 25% of children have an unhealthy BMI
    overweight, genetics, sedentary lifestyle
  • Health problems: diabetes, sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, hypertension
  • Social-emotional issues: low self-esteem, negative body image, depression, bullying target
53
Q

What are the risk factors for obesity in middle childhood?

A
  • Overweight parents, large size for gestational age, early onset of being, sedentary lifestyle
  • Fast food industry caters to children
  • Inexpensive high-calorie foods, reduced physical education in schools
54
Q

What are the characteristics of ‘visual impairment?’

A

Blindness is legally defined as less than 20/200 after correction
○ See up close and disabilities in colour, depth, and light perception
○ 1 in a 1,000.00

55
Q

What are the characteristics of ‘audiotry impairment?’

A

1% to 2 % of school-age children
○ Abstract thinking may be affected
○ Social interactions and academic performance can be hindered

56
Q

What are the characteristics of ‘speech impairment?’

A

5 % of school-age children
* Stuttering: most common
* Substantial disruption in the rhythm and fluency of speech

57
Q

What is the difference between ‘inductive logic’ and ‘deductive logic?’

A

Deductive reasoning involves starting out with a theory or general statement, then moving towards a specific conclusion. Inductive reasoning, on the other hand, takes a series of specific observations and tries to expand them into a more general theory.

58
Q

What is ‘horizontal decalage?’

A
  • Operational schemes are acquired gradually
  • Horizontal décalage is a concept in Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development. It refers to the observation that once a child can perform a certain task or function, they don’t know how to immediately apply the concept to other functions or tasks that share the same conceptual ideation. It is a lag in time in understanding different tasks that require the same cognitive framework. Horizontal décalage occurs during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development around the ages of 7-11.
59
Q

What is ‘acquisition of automaticity?’

A

Recall info from long-term memory without using short-term memory capacities; Automaticity is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit.
* the result of learning, repetition, and practice

60
Q

What are examples of memory strategies?

A
  • Rehearsal
  • Mnemonics
  • Elaborative strategy: they provide alternate pathways to retrieve information from memory.
  • Organization: involves grouping and relating material to maintain it in long-term memory.
61
Q

What is ‘ Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?’

A

Sternberg, contends that there are three types of intelligence: practical (the ability to get along in different contexts), creative (the ability to come up with new ideas), and analytical (the ability to evaluate information and solve problems)

62
Q

What is ‘Cattell’s theory of intelligence?’

A

Argued that fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence are two categories of general intelligence.

63
Q

What is ‘fluid intelligence?’

A

the ability to perceive relationships independent of previous specific practice or instruction concerning those relationships.

64
Q

What is ‘crystalized intelligence?’

A

Crystallized intelligence is based upon facts and rooted in experiences. As we age and accumulate new knowledge and understanding, crystallized intelligence becomes stronger.

65
Q

What is ‘Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory?’

A

In order to capture the full range of abilities and talents that people possess, Gardner theorizes that people do not have just an intellectual capacity, but:
○ Musical
○ Bodily kinesthetic
○ Logical mathematical
○ Linguistic
○ Spatial intelligence
○ Interpersonal
○ Intrapersonal
○ Naturalist

66
Q

What is ‘Goleman’s emotional intelligence?’

A

Theory is composed of four domains: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management.

67
Q

What is the prevalence of bullying?

A

70-75%

68
Q

What is the prevalence of childhood depression?

A

5-9%

69
Q

What is the prevalence of childhood anxiety disorder?

A

3-5%

70
Q

What is the prevalence of childhood conduct disorder?

A

2-9%

71
Q

What is the ‘analytical learning style?’

A
  • Focus on the details of a task
  • Well organized
  • Good at learning details
  • Tends to think of information in terms of right and wrong
72
Q

What is the ‘relational learning style?’

A
  • Focus on the big picture
  • General impression
  • Pay more attention in the information that finds interesting