Chapter 11 & 12: Adolescence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 11 & 12: Adolescence Deck (48)
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1
Q

Puberty

A

The biological stage of development is characterized by physiological and cognitive changes that are associated with reproduction.

2
Q

Feedback Loop

A

A system in which glands regulate each other’s functioning through a series of hormonal messages.

3
Q

Primary Sex Characteristics

A

The structures that make reproduction possible.

4
Q

Secondary Sex Characteristics

A

Physical indicators of sexual maturation - such as changes to the voice and growth of bodily hair - that do not directly involve reproductive structures.

5
Q

Asynchronous Growth

A

Imbalanced growth, such as the growth that occurs during the early part of adolescence and causes many adolescents to appear gawky.

6
Q

Secular Trend

A

A historical trend toward increasing adult height and earlier puberty.

7
Q

Semen

A

The fluid contains sperm and substances that nourish and help transport sperm.

8
Q

Nocturnal Emission

A

Emission of seminal fluid while asleep.

9
Q

Gynecomastia

A

Enlargement of breast tissue in males.

10
Q

Epiphyseal Closer

A

The process by which the cartilage that separate the long end of the bone from the main part of the bone turns to bone.

11
Q

Menarche

A

The onset of menstruation.

12
Q

Anorexia Nervosa

A

An eating disorder characterized by an irrational fear of gaining weight, distorted body image, and severe weight loss.
Sleep disturbance, cessation of menstruation, insensitivity to pain, hair loss, low blood
pressure, cardiovascular problemas, reduced body temperature, osteoporosis
○ 4-18% starve to death

13
Q

Osteoporosis

A

A condition involving progressive loss of bone tissue.

14
Q

Bulima Nervosa

A

An eating disorder characterized by cycles of binge eating and vomiting as a means of controlling weight gain.

15
Q

Formal Operations

A

The fourth stage in Piaget’s cognitive-development theory characterized by the capacity for flexible, reversible operations concerning abstract ideas and concepts, such as symbols, statements, and theories.
* Systematic problem solving
- Methodical search for a problem’s answer
- Test hypothesis by isolating one variable at a time
* Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
- “What might be”
- Naive idealism
- Think about what to do before actually doing it
* Sophisticated use of symbols
- Can understand metaphors and are more creative

16
Q

What is ‘Hypothetico-deductive reasoning?’

A

H-D, procedure for the construction of a scientific theory that will account for results obtained through direct observation and experimentation and that will, through inference, predict further effects that can then be verified or disproved by empirical evidence

17
Q

Imaginary Audience

A

The belief that others around us are concerned with our thoughts, appearance,and behaviours as we are; one aspect of adolescent egocentrism

18
Q

Personal Fable

A

The belief that our feelings and ides are special and unique and that we are invulnerable; one aspect of egocentrism

19
Q

Postconventional Level

A

According to Kohlberg, a period during which moral judgments are derived from moral principles and people look to themselves to set moral standards.

20
Q

Ego Identity

A

Accordingly to Eriksim, individuals sense of who they are and what they stand for.

21
Q

Phychological Moratorium

A

A time-out period when adolescents experiment with different roles, values, and beliefs, and relationships.

22
Q

Identity Crisis

A

A turning point in development during which people examine their values and make decisions about their life roles.

23
Q

Identity Diffusion

A

An identity status that characterizes those who are non-committal to specific beliefs and who are not in the process of exploring alternatives.

24
Q

Foreclosure

A

An identity status that characterizes those who have made commitments without considering alternatives.

25
Q

Moratorium

A

An identity status that characterizes those who are actively exploring alternatives and have developed commitments.

26
Q

Identity Achievement

A

An identity status that characterizes those who have explored alternatives and have developed commitments.

27
Q

Ethic Idetity

A

A sense of belonging to an ethnic group.

28
Q

Unexamined Ethnic Identity

A

The first stage of ethnic identity development; is similar to the diffusion or foreclosure identity statuses.

29
Q

Ethnic Identity Search

A

The second stage of ethnic identity development; similar to the moratorium identity status

30
Q

Achieved Ethnic Identity

A

The final stage of ethnic identity development; is similar to the moratorium identity status.

31
Q

Clique

A

A group of five to ten individuals who may be exclusive of others and who share activities with confidence.

32
Q

Crowd

A

A large, loosely organized group of people who may or may not spend time together and who are identified by the activities of the group.

33
Q

Materbation

A

Sexual self-stimulation.

34
Q

Youth in Conflict with the Law

A

A child or adolescent whose behaviour is characterized by illegal activities.

35
Q

Brain development in adolescents

A

Dramatic change in grey matter volume
○ Size and complexity of neurons, not number
● Steady increase in white matter
○ Frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, corpus callosum, Wernicke’s and Broca’s area
● Limbic system flourishes while prefrontal cortex develops slowly

36
Q

Skeletal system in adolescents

A

Shape of jaws change

37
Q

Motor development in adolescents

A

Girls are better coordinated
○ Boys catch up by the end of adolescence

38
Q

Heart & lungs in adolescents

A

Increase in lung size, heart rate drops
○ More pronounced in boys

39
Q

Chlamydia in adolescents

A

PID, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, genital/urinary disorders in boys
■ Most common in young Canadians

40
Q

HPV in adolescents

A
  • Skin and genital warts
  • Pre-cancerous lesions leading to certain types of cancer
  • 75% of Canadians had at least one HPV infection in their lives
  • Vaccines is available
41
Q

Prevalence of bulimia in adolescents

A

1-4%

42
Q

Prevalence of Depression in adolescents

A

More common in girls/women
○ 25% of women between 16-19 years
SSRIs are not recommended: suicidal ideation

43
Q

Prevalence of suicide in adolescents

A

○ Second leading cause of death for Canadians between 15 and 19 years
○ More common in boys/ men
■ But girls/women attempt more
○ Rate among Canadian indigenous youth are among the highest in the world

44
Q

What is ‘naive idealism?’

A

a way of thinking characterized by solutions and beliefs that are very optimistic and positive but not realistic or well thought out. This type of thinking is typical of adolescents.

45
Q

What is ‘Hypothetico-deductive reasoning?’

A

H-D, procedure for the construction of a scientific theory that will account for results obtained through direct observation and experimentation and that will, through inference, predict further effects that can then be verified or disproved by empirical evidence

46
Q

What are Marcia’s identity statuses?

A

Marcia’s four identity stages are diffusion (low exploration, low commitment), foreclosure (low exploration, high commitment), moratorium (high exploration, low commitment), and achievement (high exploration, high commitment).

47
Q

What are Phinney’s stages of development?

A

This model is the foundation for the commonly accepted model of ethnic identity proposed by Phinney (1989), who defined ethnic identity in three stages: (a) commitment and attachment–the extent of an individual’s sense of belonging to his or her group, (b) exploration–engaging in activities that increase knowledge and experiences of one’s ethnicity, and (c) achieved ethnic identity–having a clear sense of group membership and what one’s ethnicity means to the individual.

48
Q

Relationships with peers in adolescents:

A

Groups may include members of the other sex
○ Girls tend to have a few close friends
- Unstructured activities, more intimate relationships
○ Boys tend to participate of larger groups
- Structured activities, less intimate
* Both: Transition from cliques and crowds to close relationships