Chapter 8: Early Childhood - Social & Emotional Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Early Childhood - Social & Emotional Development Deck (54)
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1
Q

What does ‘authoritative’ mean?

A

Refers to a child-rearing style in which parents are restrictive and demanding yet communicative and warm.

2
Q

What does ‘authoritarian’ mean?

A

Refers to a child-rearing style in which parents demand submission and obedience.

3
Q

What does ‘permissive-indulgent’ mean?

A

Refers to a child-rearing style in which parents are warm and not restrictive.

4
Q

What does ‘rejecting-neglecting” mean?

A

Refers to a child-rearing style in which parents are neither restrictive and controlling nor supportive and responsive.

5
Q

What are ways parents might enforce restrictions?

A
  • Inductive methods (explanations/reasoning)
  • Power-assertive methods that include physical punishment and denial of privileges
  • Withdrawl of love
6
Q

What is ‘parental power assertion’ associated with?

A
  • Childre’s lower acceptance by peers, poor grades, and more antisocial behaviour
  • More assertion, the less likely the child will develop internal standards of conduct
7
Q

What does the term ‘redirecting’ mean?

A

One way to manage children who are doing something wrong or bad is to direct them toward a different activity; preschoolers more readily comply when asked to do something than when asked to not do something.
* Triple P

8
Q

What does the ‘inductive technique’ refer to?

A

Refers to a parenting technique based on an attempt to foster an understanding of principles behind parental demands, characteristic of disciplinary methods, such as reasoning.

9
Q

What is ‘regression?’

A

A return to behaviour characteristic of earlier stages of development.

10
Q

What is ‘dramatic play?’

A

Play in which children enact social roles.

11
Q

What does ‘disinhibit’ mean?

A

Stimulate a response that has been suppressed by showing a model engaging in that response. Punishment inhibits behaviour. Conversely, media violence may disinhibit aggressive behaviour, especially when characters “get away” with it.

12
Q

Describe the characteristics of children with authoritative parents:

A

Parents are restrictive but warm, and they tend to have more component and achievement-oriented children.

13
Q

Describe the characteristics of children with authoritarian parents:

A

Parents are restrictive and cold; boys tend to be hostile and defiant, while girls tend to be low in independence and self-esteem.

14
Q

Describe the characteristics of children with rejecting-neglecting parents:

A

Children with these parents tend to show the least competence and maturity.

15
Q

Describe the dimensions of child-rearing and parenting styles:

A

Approaches to child rearing can be classified according to the dimension of warmth-coldness and restrictiveness-permissiveness.

16
Q

Explain Hartup’s discussion on the bidirectional relationship between parents and children:

A

Individuals are changed by relationships just as changes in relationships are precipitated b changes in the individual. This makes it difficult to understand where problematic behaviour begins in some cases.

Is it the child’s temperament that leads to inappropriate behaviour, leading to the parent treating the child harshly in return, or does the parent’s treatment of the child lead him or her to act negatively?

17
Q

Explain how siblings/birth order affects social development during early childhood:

A
  • Siblings provide caregiving, emotional support, advice, role models, social interaction, restrictions, and cognitive stimulation.
  • Siblings are also the source of conflict, control, and competition.
  • First-born children + only children = highly motivated to achieve, more cooperative, more helpful, more adult-oriented, less aggressive
  • Later-born children = greater social skills with peers
  • First-born children tend to be more cooperative, and later-born children tend to be more social.
18
Q

What does ‘categorical self’ mean?

A

The definitions of the self that refer to external traits

19
Q

What is ‘gender role socialization?’

A

Learning to acquire clusters of traits and behaviours that are considered stereotypical f females and males.

20
Q

What is ‘gender identity?’

A

A person’s innate, deeply felt sense of being male or female (sometimes both or neither)
* Demonstrated in children by age 2 = most children can say if they are a boy or a girl
* Age 3 = can discriminate between anatomic sex differences

21
Q

What is ‘gender stability?’

A

The concept is that one’s sex is unchanging.
* Around ages 4-5: children recognize that people retain their sexes for a life time; a boy believes he will grow up to become a man

22
Q

What is ‘gender constancy?’

A

The concept is that one’s sex remains the same despite changes in appearance or behaviour.
* Around ages 5-7: children can recognize that sex does not change even if they change their dress or behaviour

23
Q

What is ‘gender-schema theory?’

A

The view that society’s gender-based concepts shape our assumptions of gender-typed preferences and behaviour patterns.

24
Q

What is ‘gender neutral parenting (GNP)?’

A

The decision not to assign a specific gender to children based on their biological sex.

25
Q

Discuss personality and emotional development during early childhood, focusing on the self, Erikson’s views, and fears.

A

Children as young as age three years can describe themselves in terms of their behaviour and their internal statues. Secure attachment and competence contribute t self-esteem. Preschoolers are more likely to fear animals, imaginary creatures, and the dark.

26
Q

Explain Hartup’s discussion on the bidirectional relationship between parents and children:

A

Individuals are changed by relationships just as changes in relationships are precipitated b changes in the individual. This makes it difficult to understand where problematic behaviour begins in some cases.

Is it the child’s temperament that leads to inappropriate behaviour, leading to the parent treating the child harshly in return, or does the parent’s treatment of the child lead him or her to act negatively?

27
Q

What are the effects of divorce on early childhood?

A
  • Young children experience divorce disrupting to their sense of security and safety, and they often feel they are blamed.
  • They worry about abandonment and being separated from their parent.
  • Change to their family significantly impacts their well-being.
28
Q

Explain how peer relationships affect social development during early childhood:

A
  • Peer interaction fosters social skills - sharing, helping, taking turns and dealing with conflict.
  • Friendship is characterized by shared positive experiences and feelings of attachment.
  • Similar and proximity are important determinants in early childhood
  • At 2 yrs = preference for a playmate
29
Q

What are Piaget’s identified kinds of play? In order.

A

Each type of play is characterized by increased cognitive complexity:
* Functional play (sensorimotor)
* Symbolic play (end of sensorimotor)
* Constructive play (early childhood)
* Formal play (whole life)

30
Q

What is ‘functional play?’

A

Beginning in the sensorimotor stage, the first kind of play involved repetitive motor activity, such as rolling a ball or running and laughing.

31
Q

What is ‘symbolic play?’

A

Also called pretend play, imaginative play, or dramatic play, symbolic play emerges towards the end of the sensorimotor stage and increases during early childhood. In symbolic play, children create settings, characters, and scripts.

32
Q

What is ‘constructive play?’

A

Children use objects or materials to draw or make something, such as a tower of blocks.

33
Q

What are ‘formal games?’

A

Games with rules include board games, which are sometimes enhanced or invented by children, and games involving motor skills, such as marbles and hopscotch, ball games involving sides or teams, and video games. Such games may involve social interaction, as well as physical activity and rules. People play such games for a lifetime.

34
Q

What are Piaget’s four stages of development?

A
  • Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years)
  • Preoperational stage (2-7 years)
  • Concrete operational stage (7-11 years)
    *Formal operational stage (12 + years)
35
Q

What happens in the ‘sensorimotor stage?’

A

Babies start to build an understanding of the world through their senses by touching, grasping, watching, and listening.

They also begin to develop a sense of object permanence, which means they understand that objects exist even when they cannot see them.

36
Q

What happens in the ‘preoperational stage?’

A

Children develop language and abstract thought. This means they can think about concepts and ideas that are not physical.

They also begin symbolic play (“playing pretend”), drawing pictures, and talking about things that happened in the past.

37
Q

What happens in the ‘concrete operational stage?’

A

Children learn logical, concrete (physical) rules about objects, such as height, weight, and volume. They also learn that an object’s properties stay the same, even if the appearance changes (e.g., modeling clay)

38
Q

What happens in the ‘formal operational stage?’

A

Adolescents learn logical rules to understand abstract concepts and solve problems. For example, they may understand the concept of justice.

39
Q

Describe characteristics of prosocial behaviour:

A

Also known as altruism, it refers to behaviour that is intended to benefit another without expectation or reward.
* Begins to develop in the first year when children begin to share
* Development of pro social behaviour is linked to the development of empathy and perspective taking

40
Q

Describe characteristics of empathy:

A

Refers to sensitivity to the feelings of others; it is demonstrated by such activities as sharing and cooperation.
* Promotes prosocial behaviour
* Decreases aggressive behaviour
* Girls show more empathy than boys (socialization rather than sex differences)

41
Q

Describe characteristics of perspective-taking:

A

In the preoperational stage, children are still developing this trait.
* Piaget = children tend to be egocentric. They tend not to see things from the vantage points of others.
* Associated with more prosocial behaviour and less aggressive behaviour.

42
Q

Describe trends in aggressive behaviour:

A
  • Preschool agrssion = instrumental
  • 6-7 years = seen as a method to obtain something valuable, like a toy; also become person-oriented such that children taunt and criticize each other at this age
  • Aggression appears to be stable and can predict problems in adulthood
43
Q

What are theories of aggression?

A
  • Genetic link to the male hormone testosterone
  • Social cognitive explanations which focus on environmental factors, such as reinforcement and observational learning
  • Media influences (Bobo doll experiment)
44
Q

What are ways in which depictions of violence contribute to actual violence?

A
  • Observational learning
  • Disinhibition
  • Increased arousal = media violence & aggressive video games increase viewers’ level of arousal. People are more likely to be aggressive under high levels of arousal.
  • Priming of aggressive thoughts and memories
  • Habituation = becoming used to repeated stimuli; children are more likely to assume that violence is acceptable and are desensitized.
45
Q

Describe the characteristics of children whose parents used the ‘inductive parenting technique:’

A

Parents foster prosocial behaviour when they use inductive techniques such as explaining how behaviour affects others (You made them cry, it is not nice to hit)
* Children shown more mature behaviour

46
Q

What two aspects do 4-yr olds make evaluative judgments on?

A
  • Physical & cognitive competence (no distinctions, they are good at things in general but cannot say they are good at one thing and bad at another)
  • Social acceptance by peers and parents
47
Q

Describe the trends of fears:

A
  • # of fears peak between 2.5 and 4 years
  • Preschoolers are more likely to fear animals, imaginary creatures, the dark, and personal danger
48
Q

What are the stages within Kolhberg’s gender theory?

A

According to Kohlberg, the acquisition of gender-role identity emerges in three stages:
* Gender identity (2 yrs)
* Gender stability (4/5 yrs)
* Gender constancy (5/7 yrs)

49
Q

What is ‘gender fluidity?’

A

Opposite to gender constancy, it is the idea that gender expression can vary greatly from day to day.

50
Q

How does ‘gender schema’ differ from ‘Kohlberg’s theory?’

A
  • According to gender-schema theory, children do not have to understand that gender is constant to begin to form a scheme for being male or female.
  • Children age and become more flexible in their abilities to adopt characteristics outside their perceived gender.
51
Q

What are the next steps for ‘personality development’ in early childhood development, according to Erikson?

A
  • Stage 2: autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (19 months - 3 yrs)
  • Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt (4-5 yrs)
52
Q

What stage are children entering when they are in early childhood, according to ‘Erikson’s Theory of Development?’

A
  • Stage 2: autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (19 months - 3 yrs)
  • Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt (4-5 yrs)
53
Q

What happens during ‘Stage 2: autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (19 months - 3 yrs)?’

A
  • A challenge of autonomy versus shame and doubt
  • This stage focuses on the ability (or inability) to master certain skills, as children become controllers of their universe by mastering skills such as social and cultural rules as toilet training and sleep schedule.
  • Opportunity to build self-esteem, well cared for children will explore their environment with pride.
54
Q

What happens during ‘Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt (4-5 yrs)?’

A

Focuses on the life stage where children begin to copy the important people in their lives by taking the initiative in creating play situations.
* Make up stories, play our character roles.