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Flashcards in Middle Childhood Deck (89)
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1
Q

The concrete-operational stage is characterized by:

A

Logical operations, such as conservation, reversibility or classification, allow logical reasoning. The child is now mature enough to use logical thought or operations (i.e. rules) but can only apply logic to physical objects (hence concrete operational). Children gain the abilities of conservation (number, area, volume, orientation), reversibility, seriation, transitivity and class inclusion.

2
Q

What is an example of Piaget’s concrete operational stage?

A

A child who is in the concrete operational stage will understand that both candy bars are still the same amount, whereas a younger child will believe that the candy bar that has more pieces is larger than the one with only two pieces.

3
Q

What are the 4 stages of Piaget’s theory?

A

Sensorimotor stage (0–2 years old) Preoperational stage (2–7 years old) Concrete operational stage (7–11 years old) Formal operational stage (11 years old through adulthood).

4
Q

What is ‘conservation’ characterized by?

A

The understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes. This can apply to aspects such as volume, number, area etc.

To be more technical, understanding that redistributing material does not affect its mass, number, volume or length.

5
Q

How might children ages 5 and 7 differ when answering Piaget’s pre and post-transformation questions regarding beakers of fluid?

A

By around seven years, most children can conserve liquid because they understand that when water is poured into a differently shaped glass, the quantity of liquid remains the same, even though its appearance has changed. Five-year-old children would think there was a different amount because their appearance has changed.

6
Q

What is an example of inductive logic?

A

Data: I see fireflies in my backyard every summer. Hypothesis: This summer, I will probably see fireflies in my backyard. Data: Every dog I meet is friendly. Hypothesis: Most dogs are usually friendly.

7
Q

What is inductive logic?

A

A type of reasoning that involves drawing a general conclusion from a set of specific observations. Some people think of inductive reasoning as “bottom-up” logic, because it involves widening specific premises out into broader generalizations.

8
Q

What is deductive logic?

A

A logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true. Deductive reasoning is sometimes referred to as top-down logic. Deductive reasoning relies on making logical premises and basing a conclusion around those premises.

9
Q

What is an example of deductive logic?

A

Milo has no cake flour. He needs cake flour in order to bake brownies. He cannot make brownies. Based on the premises that cake flour is needed to bake brownies and Milo does not have any, deductive reasoning determines that Milo cannot make brownies. The accepted facts (lack of flour, need for flour) inform the decision made.

10
Q

What is ‘logical operation?’

A
11
Q

What is ‘reversibility or classification?’

A
12
Q

In the concrete-operational stage, are children better with inductive or deductive logic?

A

Inductive logic

13
Q

What is horizontal décalage According to Piaget?

A

According to Piaget, horizontal and vertical décalage generally occur during the concrete operations stage of development. Horizontal décalage refers to the fact that once a child learns a certain function, he or she does not have the capability to immediately apply the learned function to all problems.

14
Q

What is an example of horizontal décalage?

A

For example, children solve conservation of number tasks before they solve conservation of mass tasks and the latter before they can conserve weight, a phenomenon termed horizontal décalage (i.e., the inability of a child to transfer one conservation ability to another type).

15
Q

What is an example of inductive logic?

A

Data: I see fireflies in my backyard every summer. Hypothesis: This summer, I will probably see fireflies in my backyard. Data: Every dog I meet is friendly. Hypothesis: Most dogs are usually friendly.

16
Q

What is ‘working memory?’

A
17
Q

How does working memory change with age?

A
18
Q

What is ‘acquisition of automaticity?’

A
19
Q

Memory strategies include:

A

Rehearsal, mnemonic, elaborative strategy, organization.

20
Q

What is ‘selective attention?’

A
21
Q

What might you infer from a child who scores below 70 on an Intelligent Quotient (IQ) test?

A

Intellectual disability, which might be due to chromosomal abnormalities, genetic disorders, brain damage, or an impoverished home environment.

22
Q

What might you infer from a child who scores above 130 on an Intelligent Quotient (IQ) test?

A

Gifted.

23
Q

What is the ‘Stanford-Binet intelligence scale?’

A

An IQ test; documents the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of children, adolescents, and adults. Its 10 subtests assess five cognitive factors: Fluid Reasoning; Knowledge; Quantitative; Visual-Spatial; and Working Memory.

24
Q

What is the ‘Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children?’

A

An IQ test administered to children between ages 6 and 16 by school districts and psychologists. The objective of the exam is to understand whether or not a child is gifted, as well as to determine the student’s cognitive strengths and weaknesses.

25
Q

What is the difference between the Stanford-Binet intelligence and Wechsler intelligence scale?

A

The two scales also differ in the manner of computing an intelligence quotient; the Binet scale depends upon a Mental Age concept of intelligence, whereas the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children is a point scale.

26
Q

What are the “non-culturally biased” IQ tests?

A

There are none.

27
Q

What is Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?

A

Theory that contends that there are three types of intelligence: practical (the ability to get along in different contexts), creative (the ability to come up with new ideas), and analytical (the ability to evaluate information and solve problems).

28
Q

What is Cattell’s theory of intelligence?

A

General intelligence encapsulates correlations among various cognitive tasks, which can be categorized into two subdivisions; these are fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

29
Q

What is ‘fluid intelligence?’

A

It involves being able to think and reason abstractly and solve problems. This ability is considered independent of learning, experience, and education. Examples of the use of fluid intelligence include solving puzzles and coming up with problem-solving strategies.

30
Q

What is ‘crystalized intelligence?’

A

Involves knowledge that comes from prior learning and past experiences. Situations that require crystallized intelligence include reading comprehension and vocabulary exams. Crystallized intelligence is based upon facts and rooted in experiences.

31
Q

What is ‘analytic intelligence?’

A
32
Q

What is ‘creative intelligence?’

A
33
Q

What is ‘practical intelligence?’

A
34
Q

How is crystalized intelligence characterized throughout life? How does it differ from fluid intelligence?

A
35
Q

What is Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory?

A

Gardner proposed that eight bits of intelligence exist, suggesting that traditional psychometric views of intelligence are too limited. The intelligence includes:
○ Bodily-kinesthetic
○ Logical-mathematical
○ Linguistic
○ Spatial intelligence
○ Interpersonal
○ Intrapersonal
○ Naturalist
and Musical.

36
Q

What are the methods associated with literacy?

A

(Whole) word-recognition sight vocabulary, & (Phonological) phonetic method

37
Q

What is ‘(whole) word-recognition sight vocabulary?’

A

Knowing a word by sight rather than needing to break the word apart. When readers immediately know written words and what they mean, they understand more. Familiar words are read using this method.

38
Q

What is the ‘(phonological) phonetic method?’

A

Reading/behaviour the child exhibits that involves “sounding out” words the way they are written or writing words the way they sound (relating to the way letters represent speech sounds). New words are read using this method.

39
Q

What are the stages in ‘reading development?’

A

5 stages:

40
Q

How is writing development characterized?

A

In Gentry’s stages of spelling development…

41
Q

What are the benefits of bilingual education?

A
  • Appreciation for another culture
    ○ Alternative way to think
    ○ Encourage open-mindedness
    ○ Understanding that language is
    symbolic and arbitrary
    ○ More cognitive flexibility
    ○ Better executive functioning
42
Q

What is ‘Erikson’s psychosocial theory?’

A

The stages include:
Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust (Infancy from birth to 18 months)
Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Toddler years from 18 months to three years)
Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt (Preschool years from three to five)
Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority (Middle school years from six to 11)
Stage 5: Identity vs. Confusion (Teen years from 12 to 18)
Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young adult years from 18 to 40)
Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle age from 40 to 65)
Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair (Older adulthood from 65 to death)

43
Q

What stage does Erikson believe the child to be in during middle childhood?

A

Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority - Successfully finding a balance at this stage of psychosocial development leads to the strength known as competence, in which children develop a belief in their abilities to handle the tasks set before them. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their abilities to be successful. Mostly in regards to reading and writing.

44
Q

What is ‘Bandura’s social cognitive theory?

A

Emphasizes the importance of modelling, suggests that three components—the ex- ternal environment, individual behaviors, and cognitive factors, such as beliefs, expectancies, and personal dispositions—are all in- fluenced by each other and play reciprocal roles in determining personality.

45
Q

What is ‘reciprocal determinism?’

A
46
Q

What is ‘triadic reciprocal determinism?’

A
47
Q

What are the ‘big five personality traits?’

A

OCEAN: Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neurotisim.

48
Q

What is ‘extraversion?’ What does it mean if someone scores high/low?

A
49
Q

What is ‘agreeableness?’ What does it mean if someone scores high/low?

A
50
Q

What is ‘conscientiousness?’ What does it mean if someone scores high/low?

A
51
Q

What is ‘neuroticism?’ What does it mean if someone scores high/low?

A
52
Q

What is ‘openness?’ What does it mean if someone scores high/low?

A
53
Q

What is ‘self-concept?’

A
54
Q

What is ‘self-concept’ characterized by in middle childhood?

A
55
Q

What is ‘valued-self?’

A
56
Q

What is ‘self-esteem?’ What does ‘internal model’ mean in terms of ‘self-esteem?’

A
57
Q

What does ‘discrepancy’ mean, and what does it mean when someone scores high/low in this factor?

A
58
Q

What does ‘stability’ mean in terms of self-esteem/self-concept?

A

Confirmation bias, children, are will actively explore activities that align with their perception of themsleves.

59
Q

Describe the shift in ‘understanding others’ from external to internal characteristics. What are the ages associated with this shift?

A

(6-7) years to (7-10) years: we see a shift from internal descriptors for others to external characteristics, respectively.

60
Q

What is ‘moral development?’

A
61
Q

What is ‘Piaget’s two-stage theory?’

A

The suggestion of two main types of moral thinking:
* Heteronomous morality (moral realisim)
* Autonomous morality (moral relativism)

62
Q

What is ‘Heteronomous morality (moral realism)?’

A
63
Q

What is ‘Autonomous morality (moral relativism)?’

A
64
Q

What is ‘Kohlberg’s theory?’

A

Fixed stages like Piaget; include:
* Preconventional morality
* Conventional morality
* Postconventional morality

65
Q

What are the critiques of ‘Kohlberg’s theory?’

A
66
Q

What is ‘pre-conventional morality?’

A

Follow unvarying rules based on rewards and punishments.

67
Q

What is ‘conventional morality?’

A

Follow society’s conventions for good and bad.

68
Q

What is ‘post-conventional morality?’

A

Follow personal and universal standards.

69
Q

What distinguished boys and girls in Gilligan’s theory?

A
70
Q

What are Gilligan’s ‘stages of moral development in girls?’

A
  • Stage 1: orientation to individual survival
  • First transition: selfishness to responsibility
  • Stage 2: goodness as self-sacrifice
  • Second transition: goodness to truth
  • Stage 3: morality of nonviolence
71
Q

What is the critique of Gilligan’s theory?

A

Studies are finding non-gender differences.

72
Q

How does the parent-child relationship change in middle childhood?

A

Due to the growing capacity for self-regulation, there is a slow transition of locus of control from parent to child, and the child can conform to parental standards without direct supervision.
* Children spend less time with their parents and evaluate their parents more harshly due to new cognitive skills.

73
Q

What is a ‘skip-generation’ family?

A

A family in which grandparents raise grandchildren due to the absence of parents.

74
Q

How do children with same-sex parents fare compared to those with heterosexual parents?

A

Psychological adjustment and sexual orientation comparable with that of children of heterosexual parents.

75
Q

What is the impact of divorce on middle-childhood children?

A

There are long-term consequences of divorce that are more noticeable in middle-childhood children than in early-childhood children; the children find it difficult to adjust but after a couple of years the children tend to rebound.

76
Q

What is ‘role ambiguity?’

A

Type of role strain occurs when shared specifications set for an expected role are incomplete to tell the involved individual what is desired and how to do it; occurring when there is a lack of definition regarding a role, either individually or within the group. Regarding the role of the step-parent in blended families, supporting the “biological” parent and acting as an authoritative figure is important.

77
Q

How are peer relationships characterized in middle childhood?

A
  • A transition from “playing” to “reciprocal trust.”
  • Idea of “best friends” emerges; this aids in their ability to learn conflict resolution - these friendships become very important for the child, and due to similar cognitive abilities, they can work together to find a solution.
  • Gender self-segregation intensifies at this age
78
Q

What are the key differences in ‘gender self-segregation?’

A
  • Boys: large groups, more focus on competition, more outdoors activities
  • Girls: smaller groups, more focus on self-disclosure and agreement, more indoor activities
  • But both show collaborative and cooperative exchanges
  • Unrelated to sex differences in parenting (even if a parent attempts to teach boys to be ‘gentle’ or a girl to be more ‘aggressive or competitve.’)
  • Cross-cultural phenomenon (some innate or biological drive that explains segregation at this age)
79
Q

What are the challenges in peer relationships, and how do they emerge?

A
  • Social status - children who can navigate social relations become popular; the social status of a child impacts a child for the rest of their lives
  • Peer rejection can lead to depression and/or anxiety
80
Q

What is ‘withdrawn-rejection?’

A
81
Q

What is ‘aggressive-rejection?’

A
82
Q

What are the characteristics of ‘aggression patterns?’

A
  • Becomes less direct and more indirect
  • Relational vs. physical (sex differences, girls tend to use more indirect nonphyscial aggression compared to boys)
  • Retaliatory: increases with the understanding of intentionality
  • Intergenerational transfer of risk for aggression
  • More aggression is linked to low SES (social, economic status)
83
Q

What is ‘bullying?’

A

Intent to harm needs to be repeated behaviour, an imbalance of power needs to be present, and there is the victim’s distress. It can take physical, verbal, and social forms.
* Bullies hypothesized that they are behind in the development of social skills

84
Q

How many individual experiences bullying?

A

70%-75%

85
Q

What is ‘conduct disorder?’

A

Refers to a group of behavioural and emotional problems characterized by a disregard for others. Children with conduct disorder have a difficult time following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. Their behaviour can be hostile and sometimes physically violent; diagnosed when children show an ongoing pattern of aggression toward others, and serious violations of rules and social norms at home, in school, and with peers.

86
Q

What are the consequences of bullying?

A
  • Bully: conduct disorder, aggressive behaviour, school refusal
  • Victim: mental health issues, somatization, school refusal
87
Q

What is a ‘jigsaw classroom?’ How is it used to defease bullying?

A
88
Q

What is the ‘pygmalion effect?’

A
89
Q

What is ‘self-fulfilling prophecy?’

A