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Although many definitions of Dance exist, provide one complete definition as offered in chapter one

The rhythmic movement of the body or feet normally to music


What are the Raw Materials of Dance used by all dance makers?

Body, Time, Space, Effort


Why is it important to know the role of a particular dance within its original culture?

To know what purpose the dance served within that culture, it will shed light on the history of the culture and time period in which it was created. Dance reflects culture and v.v.


How is dance used today in our own culture?

Dance is used to reflect culture, but as culture evolves so does dance. Often manipulating, changing or layering what came before. It is used as a tool of personal expression.


What characteristics of dance make it more difficult to study and reconstruct than other arts?

Personal aesthetic - personal viewpoint of a performance differs between people. This could be due to emotional state, connection with performers, family, peers, nationality.


What are the 4 Categories of religion dance based on purpose?

Dances of imitation: imitating other living beings, actions, or events
Medicine dance: dances to restore health by warding off evil or pleasing a god/goddess
Commemorative dance: involve whole community and are used to remember a specific calendar event
Dance for spiritual connection: used to connect on a spiritual level with a higher being, may be achieved by spinning for long periods of time


What types of evidence exist for dance among ancient peoples?

Cave paintings from the Paleolithic period depicting dancers in animal skin simulating the hunt.


What dance depicts the bliss of union between man and God in terms of union with a lover?

Bharata Natyam of India


What religious group uses repetitive whirling as a means of reaching a state of religious ecstasy?

Native Americans and Sufi Muslims


What was the basis for objections to dancing among christian leaders of the early middle ages?

Needed to prepare soul not body


What nineteenth century group of American Christians incorporated a great deal of dance into their religious services?

Shaking Quakers - Shakers


What might a culture's attitude toward marriage be if there are no couple dances? Name a culture with this attitude:

Arranged marriage - Native Americans


The term "ethnic dance" is applied to:

Folk dance - more traditional usually from specific ethnic groups, also known as Nationality Dance.
Grew from tribal dances of non-western countries.


What type of dances follow a pattern of display or flirtation between the sexes? Name one and the country of origin.

Courtship dances - Maiden's Round from Hungary


Explain what a Work Dance is in folk dance then give an example of a Work Dance. (could be any of the following)

Imitation of the movements men and women do in their daily work which bonds groups of people based on occupation.
Hunters dances of Russia


In class we watched a video which illustrates an all male group recreational dance. What was the name of this type of dance, and from where did this dance originate?

Stepping dances originated from war dances


How are weapons dances characterized and what might their original purpose be?

By individual or group displays of strength or agility.
Original purpose to keep soldier fit, prepared for fighting and display their prowess.


Where do communal dances abound?

In communities where cooperation is valued above competitiveness.
the Israeli hora dance


What ethnic dance forms contributed to the early development of tap dancing?

African and British Isles (England, Scotland, Ireland)


What were the differences between the touring minstrel shows of the nineteenth century and the vaudevilles shows of the twentieth century?

Minstrel - 1830s - white male performers performing in black style - first performance of Black Face (John Durang)
Vaudeville - 1900's - more variety of acts, more like a circus, lasted all night, included women. French for "voices of the town".
Eventually movies/film replaces vaudeville


How did the growth of the film industry in the 1930's and 1940's affect the dance world?

Provided escape for the audience drawing big crowds. Began to see movie musicals featuring star tap dancers, large dancing chorus', elaborate sets.


Part A: What three choreographers had exceptionally long careers in both Broadway and film, strongly influencing subsequent generations?

Part B: Which one is considered the father of Jazz Dance and why?

Fred Astaire
Jack Cole
Jerome Robbins

Jack Cole - Father of Jazz because of his influence on jazz


Who is Gene Kelly and what dancing movies is he known for?

A jazz/tap dancer - singin in the rain, American in Paris - known for large leaps/movements


Who is Bob Fosse and what was is contribution to jazz dance?

Jazz Choreographer who influenced MJ


How has the advent of music videos changed dance?

Changed the way dance is viewed as there are many quick cuts and special effects it can change the way a dancer is viewed


Three internationally known jazz dancers/teachers, are Gus Giardano, Matt Maddox and Luigi. what are their dance contributions?

Luigi - new technique using space as barre and heavy use of shoulders
Maddox - introduced jazz to Europe. Student of Jack Cole.

All 3 initiated the American jazz dance world congress in Chicago - conference for Jazz teachers, and students.


Match the name of the dancer/choreographer with the show or movie they choreographed or danced in:
Michael Bennett
Twyla Tharpe
John Travolta
Gregory Hines
Susan Strohman

Bennett - Chorus Line
Tharpe - Hair
Travolta - Saturday Night Fever
Hines - Tap
Strohman - Cats