# chapter1 Flashcards

1
Q

Synoptic meteorology

A

meteorology traditionally involves the study of weather systems, such as - extratropical high and low pressure systems, - jet streams - associated waves - fronts.

2
Q

mesoscale meteorology

A

the study of convective storms, land–sea breezes, gap winds, and mountain waves

3
Q

Weather forecasting

A

forecasting necessitates understanding a wide range of processes and phenomena acting on a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

4
Q

forecasting for a coastal location requires information concerning:

A
• The near-shore water temperature
• The potential for land–sea breeze circulations
• The strength and orientation of the prevailing synoptic-scale wind flow.
5
Q

The prediction of precipitation type can benefit from knowledge of:

A
• Atmospheric thermodynamics - Cloud physics.
6
Q

quasigeostrophic (QG) equations

A

simplified version of the full primitive equations

7
Q

Momentum equations

A
• continuous
• ideal gas
• hydrostatic
8
Q

scale analysis

A

systematic strategy to determine which terms in the equations, often associated with specific physical processes, are most important and which are negligible in a given meteorological setting. By characterizing the temporal and spatial scales associated with specific weather systems, we can systematically neglect “small” terms in the governing equations in the study of those systems.

9
Q

The length scale

A

related to the size of a weather system, or how far an air parcel would travel within the system during a given time interval.

10
Q

The time scale

A

how long it would take an air parcel to circulate within the system

11
Q

rawinsonde can measure pressure with

A

baroswitch

12
Q

length scale of microscale

A
13
Q

time scale of microscale

A
14
Q

Example phenomena of microscale

A

turbulence, PBL

15
Q

length scale of mesoscale

A

1-1,000 km

16
Q

time scale of mesoscale

A

1h - 1day

17
Q

example phenomena of mesoscale

A

thunderstorm and, land sea breeze

18
Q

length scale of synoptic scale

A

1,000-4,000 km

19
Q

time scale of synoptic scale

A

1 day - 1 week

20
Q

Example phenomena of synoptic scale

A

Upper- level troughs, ridges. surface low and high

21
Q

length scale of planetary scale

A

>4,000 km

22
Q

time scale of planetary scale

A

>1 week

23
Q

Example phenomena of planetary scale

A

polar front jet stream, trade winds

24
Q

what are the variables in the system?

A

Four independent variables: three spatial directions (x,y,z) and time (t)

25
Q

a variety of vertical coordinates measures are used in place of the ……….

A

vertical distance z

26
Q

a variety of vertical coordinate measures are used in place of the vertical distance z to determine …..

A

determine position along the vertical coordinate axis

27
Q

popular choice of vertical coordinates

A

pressure, sigma (a terrain-following ratio of pressure to surface pressure), potential temperature, or a hybrid among these

28
Q

the k unit vector maintains

A

right angles with the horizontal unit vectors.

29
Q

vertical coordinates are known as……

A

isobaric coordinates

30
Q

what is the method pilots use to fly?

A

aircraft’s measure pressure and fly along surfaces of constant pressure

31
Q

The wind velocity components are based on

A

the time rate of change in the distance along the respective coordinate axes following the airflow

32
Q

omega (ω), is defined as

A

the vertical motion in isobaric coordinates

33
Q

The pressure-coordinate vertical velocity is negative for …..

A

upward motion because pressure decrease with height

34
Q

The Coriolis parameter is related to

A

the projection of the earth’s rotation onto the vertical (kˆ) axis and is given by f = 2Ωsin ϕ

35
Q

ϕ is

A

latitude

36
Q

Ω is

A

the earth’s rate of angular rotation, 2π radians day–1 7.292x10−5 rads−1

37
Q

sidereal day

A

23 h 56 min

38
Q

Other basic variables

A

pressure (p), temperature (T), density (ρ), and specific volume a=1/p

39
Q

Td

A

dew point: measure of absolute water vapor content

40
Q

RH

A

relative humidity: measure of the degree of saturation

41
Q

The ideal gas law, or equation of state, provides a useful relation between

A

the pressure, temperature, and density

42
Q

Tv

A

virtual temperature Tv= T (1+0.61q)

43
Q

Rd

A

dry- air gas constant Rd = 287 J/ kg.K

44
Q
A