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1

the dry-adiabatic lapse rate

2

Poisson’s equation

3

the left hand side term is 

potential temperature

4

the vertical potential temperature profile is used to determine

static stability

5

examination of the horizontal ɵ distribution is useful in

locating frontal boundaries

6

When diabatic processes are negligible, air parcels are constrained to travel along surfaces of

constant ɵ, known as isentropic surfaces.

7

as isentropic surfaces

surfaces of constant ɵ

8

The lowest 1 km is characterized by

unsaturated turbulent mixing

9

the temperature of rising and sinking air parcels follows the ........................................., meaning that potential temperature is .................................for parcels moving in this layer

dry-adiabatic lapse rate, conserved

10

In the presence of solar heating, there may even be a slight ...........................................immediately ........................the surface, indicated by a small zone where potential temperature....................................

superadiabatic layer, above ,  decreases with height

11

Surface-based mixed layers usually correspond to the

planetary boundary layer

12

Surface-based mixed layers usually correspond to the planetary boundary layer. The mixed layer depth has important implications for

air pollution , forecasting surface temperature and wind conditions

13

Adiabatic mixed layers correspond to

neutral stability

14

In the midlatitude troposphere, potential temperature typically ............................with height. 

increase

15

The more rapid the increase of θ with height, the more .........................is the atmospheric profile.

stable

16

The equivalent potential temperature is ...............................for a wide majority of atmospheric flows, and is related to ...............................

conserved, stability

17

When θe decreases with height, the atmosphere is said to be

potentially or convectively unstable

18

potentially or convectively unstable mean that

if the layer in which θe decreases with height was lifted to saturation, then an unstable lapse rate would result. This situation is often found when potentially colder or drier air is located above warm, moist air.

19

prognostic equations for the local tendency of temperature or potential temperature

(Differentiating the first law of thermodynamics with respect to time)

20

explain the terms

thermal advection, vertical motion, diabatic processes