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1

symbol U represents

Horizontal velocity 

10m/s

2

symbol W represents 

vertical velocity 0.01 m/s

3

symbol L represents

horizontal distance 106 m

4

Symbol H represents

vertical distance 104 m

5

symbol P represents

pressure change

horizontal 103pa

vertical 105 pa

6

symbol t represents

time t=L/U

105sec

7

density

1 kg/m3

8

kinematic viscosity

1.46x10-5 m2/s

9

omega

7.292x10-5 rad/s

10

latitude

45º

11

radius of earth

6.378 x 106​ m

12

measure of geostrophy

the extent to which the flow is in geostrophic balance

13

scale analysis for acceleration

14

corriolis scale analysis

15

pressure gradient force scale analysis

16

corriolis scale analysis (not ratio)

17

For synoptic-scale motions, scale analysis reveals that the dominant terms in the horizontal momentum equation are

the pressure gradient force and Coriolis terms

18

For synoptic-scale motions, scale analysis reveals that the dominant terms in the horizontal momentum equation are the pressure gradient force and Coriolis terms.

For the limiting case where these two terms are in exact balance known as

geostrophic balance

19

the geostrophic wind, which is oriented

parallel to isobars with lower values to the left (right) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere.

20

the vector and scalar expressions for flow that is in exact geostrophic balance

21

hydrostatic equation

assumption to replace the vertical momentum equation

22

hydrostatic equation, balance between the vertical pressure gradient force and gravitational acceleration

23

the vertical motions which do arise, are the result of

small imbalances between these largely cancelling vertical forces

24

Some numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, such as the Global Forecast System (GFS) model in the United States, are currently ....................................models,

hydrostatic

25

Some numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, such as the Global Forecast System (GFS) model in the United States, are currently hydrostatic models, meaning that they do not explicitly solve the

vertical momentum equation

26

in the global forecast system , the vertical motion is obtained diagnostically, from the

continuity equation

27

An often-overlooked aspect of the continuity equation is that atmospheric mass is

not conserved

28

. The source and sink terms are most important during................................., for example, during a ........................

heavy precipitation, tropical cyclone

29

continuity equation

30

first law of thermodynamics is known as

conservation of energy or thermodynamic energy equation