Chapter4 (first half) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter4 (first half) Deck (18):


A concept with many meanings, including sensory awareness of the world outside, direct inner awareness of one’s thoughts and feelings, personal unity, and the waking state.


Selective Attention

The focus of one’s consciousness on a particular stimulus.


REM Sleep

A stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, which have been linked to dreaming.


Why do we sleep?

purposes: it rejuvenates the body, helps us recover from stress, helps us consolidate learning and memories, and in infants, it may even promote the development of the brain.


Dreams - Theories

-Reflections of the day.
-The expression of unconscious desires.
-Protecting sleep (keeping scary stuff away).
-Help us consolidate memories.


Activation-syntesis Model

The view that dreams reflect activation of cognitive activity by the reticular formation and synthesis of this activity into a pattern.



A “sleep attack” in which a person falls asleep suddenly and irresistibly.


Sleep Apnea

Temporary absence or cessation of breathing while asleep. (From Greek and Latin roots meaning “without” and “breathing.”)


Sleep Terrors

Frightening dreamlike experiences that occur during the deepest stage of NREM sleep. Nightmares, in contrast, occur during REM sleep.



An altered state of consciousness in which people appear to be highly suggestible and behave as though they are in a trance.


Passivity - Changes in Consciousness Attributed to Hypnosis

Awaiting instructions and suspending planning.


Narrowed Attention - Changes in Consciousness Attributed to Hypnosis

Focusing on the hypnotist’s voice or a spot of light and not attending to background noise or intruding thoughts.


Pseudomemories and Hypermnesia - Changes in Consciousness Attributed to Hypnosis

Reporting pseudomemories (false memories) or highly detailed memories (hypermnesia). Police hypnotists attempt to heighten witnesses’ memories by instructing them to focus on details of a crime and reconstruct the scene. Some studies challenge the accuracies of such memories.


Suggestibility - Changes in Consciousness Attributed to Hypnosis

Responding to suggestions that an arm is becoming lighter and will rise or that the eyelids are becoming heavier and must close.


Playing Unusual Rolls - Changes in Consciousness Attributed to Hypnosis

Playing roles calling for increased strength or alertness, such as riding a bicycle with less fatigue than usual. In age regression, people may play themselves as infants or children. A person may speak a language forgotten since childhood.


Perceptual Distortions- Changes in Consciousness Attributed to Hypnosis

Acting as though hypnotically induced hallucinations and delusions are real. Behaving as though one cannot hear loud noises, smell odors, or feel pain.


Posthypnotic Amnesia- Changes in Consciousness Attributed to Hypnosis

Acting as though one cannot recall events that took place under hypnosis.


Posthypnotic Suggestion- Changes in Consciousness Attributed to Hypnosis

Following commands given “under” hypnosis after one “awakens,” such as falling quickly into a deep trance when given the command “Sleep!” or—in the case of a would-be quitter of smoking—finding cigarette smoke aversive.