Chapters 1 & 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 1 & 2 Deck (78):
1

What did Aristotle study?

Studied polis (Greek city-state)

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state

political community, definite territory, organized government

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nation

sizable group of people who are united by common bonds and territorial boundaries

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nation-state

country

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What are the essential features of a state? (4 things)

- Population
- Territory
- Sovereignty
- Government

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consensus

agreement

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mobility

changes political organization

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territory

established and recognized borders

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sovereignty

state has absolute authority

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government (3 things)

- institution that maintains order
- provides public services
- enforces decisions

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Evolutionary Theory

evolved from family

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Force Theory

brought under authority

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Divine Right Theory

rulers chosen by gods

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Social Contract Theory

Created by Thomas Hobbes, maintain order, John Locke -> natural rights -> American Independence

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Purposes of Government (4 things)

- Maintain social order
- Providing public services
- Providing national security
- Making economic decisions

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Unitary System

gives all key powers to the national government

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Federal System

divides powers of government between national government and state government

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Confederacy

a loose union of independent states

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Constitution (3 things)

- ideals that people believe in and share
- basic structure of government and defines government's powers and duties
- provides supreme law

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constitutional government

a government in which a constitution has authority to place clearly recognized limits on those who govern

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constitutional law

interpretation and application of constitution

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politics

the effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government, conflicts of society are managed

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industrialized nations

large industries and advanced technology (1st world countries)

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developing nations

just beginning industrially, starvation, disease (3rd world countries)

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global interdependence

people and nation must interact or depend upon each other

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WTO

seeks to improve economic development around the world

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UN

serves the needs of member states

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Autocracy

power and authority in hands of one person

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totalitarian dictatorship

ideas of single leaser are glorified

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Monarchy

a king/queen/emperor exercises the supreme power of government

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Absolute monarchy

unlimited power to rule people

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Constitutional monarchy

share government powers with elected legislatures or serve as the ceremonial leaders of their government

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Oligarchy

a small group holds powers

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Democracy

rule is by the people

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Direct democracy

people govern themselves by voting on issues individually

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Representative democracy

people elect representatives and give them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government

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Republic

voters are source of government's authority

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Characteristics of Democracy (4 things)

- Individual liberty
- Majority rule with minority rights
- Free elections
- Competing political parties

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free enterprise

opportunity to control one's economic decisions provides a base for making independent political decisions

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civil society

a complex network of voluntary associations, economic groups, religious organization, and many other independent groups

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Economic system decisions (3 things)

- what and how much should be produced
- how goods and services should be produced
- who gets the goods and services that are produced

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Main characteristics of Capitalism (5 things)

- private ownership and control of property and economic resources
- free enterprise
- competition among business
- freedom of choice
- the possibility of profits

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What did Adam Smith believe?

government should stay out of economy

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3 main goals of socialism

- the distribution of wealth and economic opportunity equally among people
- society's control of all major decisions about production
- public ownership of most land

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communism

one class would evolve, property would all be held in common, no need for government

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limited government

power of monarch was limited, not absolute

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Petition of Right

Document that severely limited the king's powers

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English Bill of Rights (6 things)

- set clear limits on what a ruler could and couldn't do
- monarchs didn't have absolute power
- must have Parliament's consent to suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain an army
- can't interfere with parliamentary elections and debates
- people have right to petition the government and to have fair and speedy trial by a jury of their peers
- people shouldn't be subject to cruel and unusual punishments or excessive fines and bail

49

What did Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau believe?

People should contract among themselves to form governments to protect their natural rights

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Key parts of the nation's system of government (3 things)

- a written constitution
- a legislature of elected representatives
- separation of powers between the governor and the legislature

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Mayflower Compact

Pilgrims made their own laws for the new land

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Great Fundamentals

1st basic system of laws in English colonies

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Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

laid out plan for government that gave the people the right to elect the governor, judges, and representatives to make laws

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Stamp Act

tax on docs, pamphlets, newspapers, and playing cards

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Intolerable Acts

closed Boston Harbor, withdrew right of Massachusetts colony to govern itself

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Key parts of Declaration of Independence (3 things)

- to justify the revolution and to put forth the founding principles of the new nation
- human liberty and consent of the governed
- statement of purpose and basic human rights, lists specific complaints against King George lll, colonists' determination to separate from Britain

57

Plan for central government (2 things)

- unicameral, single chamber, Congress
- a committee of one delegate from each state managed the government when Congress was not assembled

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Powers given to Congress under the Articles (10 things)

- make war and peace
- send and receive ambassadors
- enter into treaties
- raise and equip an army
- maintain an army by requesting troops from the states
- appoint senior military officers
- fix standards of weight and measures
- regulate Indian affairs
- establish post offices
- decide certain disputes among the states

59

Weaknesses of the Articles (7 things)

- Congress didn't have the power to levy or collect taxes
- Congress couldn't regulate trade
- Congress couldn't force anyone to obey the laws it passed to abide by the Articles
- laws needed the approval of 9 out of 13 states
- changing the Articles required the consent of all the states
- central government didn't have any executive branch
- government had no national court system

60

Achievements of the Articles (3 things)

- Development of lands west of the Appalachians
- A peace treaty with Great Britain
- Having a single permanent secretary for the department of Foreign Affairs, one for department of War, one for the Marines, and one for the Treasury

61

Problems because of the Articles (2 things)

- conflict over boundary lines
- new nation owed tons of money to foreign governments and American soldiers

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Shays' Rebellion

- armed groups of farmers forced several courts to close in order to prevent farm foreclosures and the loss of their farms
- Shays lend a band of farmers that closed the Massachusetts state supreme court

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The Annapolis Convention

It was decided to revisit and revise the Articles

64

George Washington's role at the Constitutional Convention

Ensured that many people would trust the Convention's work

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Benjamin Franklin's role at the Constitutional Convention

Played an active role in the debate

66

James Wilson's role at the Constitutional Convention

He often read Franklin's speeches and did important work on the details of the Constitution

67

Governor Morris' role at the Constitutional Convention

Wrote the final draft of the Constitution

68

James Madison's role at the Constitutional Convention

The author of the basic plan if the government that the Convention eventually adopted

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Rules of the Convention (3 things)

- each state would have one vote on all questions
- majority vote
- no meetings would be held without 7/13 of the states

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Key agreements at the Convention (5 things)

- start fresh
- limited and representative government
- power of national government split into 3 branches
- limit power of the states
- strengthen national government

71

The Virginia Plan (4 things)

- strong national legislature with 2 chambers, lower one chosen by the people and upper one chosen by the lower
- a strong national executive to be chosen by the national legislature
- a national judiciary to be appointed by the legislature
- more populous states would be in control of a strong national government

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The New Jersey Plan (3 things)

- government based on major feature of the Articles, an unicameral legislature
- Congress given power to impose taxes and regulate trade
- more fair for smaller states

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The Connecticut Compromise

- House of Representatives: based on population, revenue laws begin here
- Senate: two from each state

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The 3/5 Compromise

3/5 of slaves would be counted for

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Compromise on Commerce and Slave Trade (3 things)

- can't ban slave trade until 1808
- could regulate interstate commerce, trade among states, and foreign commerce
- forbidden to impose export tax

76

Electoral College

each state selects electors to choose the president

77

Federalists

- favored Constitution
- merchants, and people from city and costal areas
- believed weak national government would lead to anarchy

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Anti-Federalists

- opposed Constitution
- inland farmers and laborers
- claimed the doc was extralegal, or not sanctioned by law, since the Convention had been authorized only to revise the Articles
- lacked a Bill of Rights