What are the 4 Periods for Henry VIII’s Reign ?
1509-14 ( Early Reign )
1514-29 ( Wolsey )
1530-40 ( Cromwell )
1540-47( End of Reign )
Who were Henry’s 6 wives ?
Catherine of Aragon = Mary Anne Boleyn =Elizabeth Jane Seymour = Edward Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr
What was the character of Henry VIII?
- 7 years to prepare as king after Arthur died
- Well educated, but not that bright
- Welcomed as king, very different to father
- Skilled sportsman in tennis, jousting and archery
- Dislike for government and politics
- Lacked work ethic of king
What were the Aims of Henry VIII?
- Establish status amongst European monarchs through marriage
- Re-establish the role of the nobility
- Become a warrior king abroad in battle
- Dismantle unpopular aspects of his fathers legacy
How did Henry VIII distance himself from his father Henry VII ?
- Empson and Dudley executed
- Council Learned abolished
- Cancelled many bonds and recognisances
- Increased his own popularity amongst the nobility
What happened in Henry’s Foreign Policy in this period ?
- Renewed Treaty of Etaples to continue peace
- Created the Holy League - joined England, Spain, HRE, Venice and the papacy against the French
- Battle of Spurs 1513- against Scots, was successful
- Conquered French towns Tournai and Therouanne
- Wars against France and Scotland
What was the Battle of Flodden ?
- Against the Scots
- James IV is killed
- Throne left to infant James V
- Henry did little to build on the advantage of Flodden
What was the Impact of Henry’s early Foreign Policy ?
- War was costly, had to liquidate assets inherited from his father to pay for it
- Renegotiated pension from France was lost
- Tournai sold back to French for less money
What was Henry’s Government like in this period ?
- Councillor adopted at the start of reign
- Inherited a council chosen by his father
- Included Thomas Lovell, John Fisher, Thomas Howard
- Executed Edmund De La Pole to show threats to the throne will be dealt with
- Made own decisions
What brought the end to councillor government in this period ?
- Henry became disenchanted by his fathers councillors to support a war in France
- He controlled his own decisions
- Surrounded himself with like minded young courtiers
- Was impressed by Wolsey, who then emerged as a dominant political figure
What legacy did Henry VII leave for Henry VIII ?
- Henry VIII left £300,000 upon his death
- Unpopular methods for extracting money
- A peaceful foreign policy
- A councillor government
How did Henry VIII spend all the money left by his father ?
- £300,000 inherited spent in his early reign to fund his aggressive foreign policy
- Towards Scotland and France
How did Henry VIII re-establish the role of the nobility ?
- Befriended nobles sons
- 2 new dukes made: Norfolk and Suffolk
- Nobles accompanied Henry to France to war in northern France