Chatper 9: Intelligence Flashcards Preview

Assessment and Diagnosis > Chatper 9: Intelligence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chatper 9: Intelligence Deck (41):
1

3 abilities incorporated by most definitions of intelligence

Problem solving
Abstract reasoning
Ability to acquire knowledge

2

Percentage of intelligence that is heritable

50%

3

How environment can influence intelligence

Growing up in enriched environment (stimuli and education): maximize genetic range
Growing up in impoverished environment: minimize genetic range

4

What intelligence is often correlated with

Highest degree achieved

5

Aptitude vs. achievement tests

Aptitude tests measure cognitive abilities; skills tested have been accumulated across life experience
Achievement tests measure what has been learned as the result of instruction

6

What both achievement and aptitude tests measure

Developed abilities

7

What kind of test is an intelligence test?

Aptitude test

8

Correlation between achievement and aptitude

0.7

9

Why professionals have a love/hate relationship with intelligence tests

Good: reliable and valid (psychometrically sound, predict academic success, fairly stable over time)
Bad: limited (make complex construct into 1 number), misunderstood and overused

10

Original determination of IQ (used by Binet)

Mental age/chronological age * 100

11

How IQ is currently determined

Raw score compared to age/grade appropriate norm sample
M=100, SD=15

12

Group administered tests: who administers and who scores?

Standardized: anyone can administer (teachers, etc.), but professionals interpret

13

Group administered tests: what happens to items as test progresses?

Items become more difficult

14

Group administered tests: what is often included?

Time limits

15

Group administered tests: content focuses on which skills most?

Verbal skills

16

Example of group administered test commonly used in school settings

Otis-Lennon School Ability Test

17

Individually administered tests: how standardized?

Very standardized
No feedback given during testing regarding performance or test
Additional queries only when specified (only can say "Tell me more about that.")
Answers are recorded verbatim

18

Individually administered tests: what happens to items as test progresses?

Items increase in difficulty

19

Individually administered tests: starting point

Starting point determined by age/grade
Reversals sometimes needed (person gets 1st question wrong: must back down in level)

20

Individually administered tests: ending point

Testing ends when person answers 5 questions wrong in a row

21

Individually administered tests: skills tested

Verbal and performance

22

3 individually administered IQ tests for adults

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS; most commonly used)
Stanford-Binet
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities

23

IQ tests for children

Test used depends on age (tests exist for babies all the way up to teenagers)
Child versions of 3 main IQ tests for adults exist (exception: WAIS is called WISC, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children)

24

WAIS: who administers?

Psychologists or psychometrists

25

WAIS: how long does it take to administer and score?

2-3 hours

26

WAIS: norm set

Adults aged 16-92

27

WAIS: subtests and index scores

15 subtests combine to make 4 index scores: Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI)
4 index scores combined to make Full Scale IQ score

28

WISC: basics

2-3 hours to administer and score
Administered by professionals
Normed for children aged 6-16

29

Stanford-Binet: norm set

People aged 2-85 years

30

Stanford-Binet: indexes and IQ scores

5 factor indexes: Fluid Reasoning (ability to use logic), Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, Working Memory
Verbal and performance for each of 5 indexes is measured
3 composite IQ scores: verbal IQ, nonverbal IQ, full scale IQ

31

Score range difference between WAIS/WISC and Stanford-Binet

Stanford-Binet: possible to score higher than 160 (not possible for WAIS or WISC)

32

Woodcock-Johnson: norm set

People aged 2-90

33

What Woodcock-Johnson is based on

Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of 10 types of intelligence

34

Woodcock-Johnson: subtests and scores

20 subtests
7 composite scores
Full scale IQ

35

What kind of a construct is IQ?

Unitary construct

36

For an IQ test, what do you do if factor scores are vastly different?

Present factor scores rather than overall score

37

Full scale IQ refers to...

Overall, composite IQ (# reported)

38

What is critical to scoring and interpreting the IQ test?

Behavioral observations: must determine if factors in examinee's behavior (e.g. motivation, mood, illness, etc.) influence performance

39

2 disorders that include intelligence in the criteria

Intellectual disability (IQ less than 70, impairments across multiple domains- occupational, educational, social function, activities of daily living)
Learning disorders (discrepancy between intelligence and achievement; math, reading, written expression)
Neither is based on intelligence alone

40

Response to intervention

Method of preventing struggling students from being placed in special ed
Students are provided regular instruction: progress is monitored
If they don't progress, they get additional instruction: progress is monitored
Those who still don't respond receive special education or special education evaluation

41

Factors that influence choice of aptitude/intelligence test

Referral question (information necessary about person's level of intellectual function)
Person who is being tested (age/grade level, matching appropriate norm set for test, physical/sensory limitations)
Psychometric properties of test (reliable and valid)
Intelligence vs. achievement comparisons (best to choose test that is co-normed with achievement)