Flashcards in Chatper 9: Intelligence Deck (41):
3 abilities incorporated by most definitions of intelligence
Ability to acquire knowledge
Percentage of intelligence that is heritable
How environment can influence intelligence
Growing up in enriched environment (stimuli and education): maximize genetic range
Growing up in impoverished environment: minimize genetic range
What intelligence is often correlated with
Highest degree achieved
Aptitude vs. achievement tests
Aptitude tests measure cognitive abilities; skills tested have been accumulated across life experience
Achievement tests measure what has been learned as the result of instruction
What both achievement and aptitude tests measure
What kind of test is an intelligence test?
Correlation between achievement and aptitude
Why professionals have a love/hate relationship with intelligence tests
Good: reliable and valid (psychometrically sound, predict academic success, fairly stable over time)
Bad: limited (make complex construct into 1 number), misunderstood and overused
Original determination of IQ (used by Binet)
Mental age/chronological age * 100
How IQ is currently determined
Raw score compared to age/grade appropriate norm sample
Group administered tests: who administers and who scores?
Standardized: anyone can administer (teachers, etc.), but professionals interpret
Group administered tests: what happens to items as test progresses?
Items become more difficult
Group administered tests: what is often included?
Group administered tests: content focuses on which skills most?
Example of group administered test commonly used in school settings
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test
Individually administered tests: how standardized?
No feedback given during testing regarding performance or test
Additional queries only when specified (only can say "Tell me more about that.")
Answers are recorded verbatim
Individually administered tests: what happens to items as test progresses?
Items increase in difficulty
Individually administered tests: starting point
Starting point determined by age/grade
Reversals sometimes needed (person gets 1st question wrong: must back down in level)
Individually administered tests: ending point
Testing ends when person answers 5 questions wrong in a row
Individually administered tests: skills tested
Verbal and performance
3 individually administered IQ tests for adults
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS; most commonly used)
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities
IQ tests for children
Test used depends on age (tests exist for babies all the way up to teenagers)
Child versions of 3 main IQ tests for adults exist (exception: WAIS is called WISC, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children)
WAIS: who administers?
Psychologists or psychometrists
WAIS: how long does it take to administer and score?
WAIS: norm set
Adults aged 16-92
WAIS: subtests and index scores
15 subtests combine to make 4 index scores: Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI)
4 index scores combined to make Full Scale IQ score
2-3 hours to administer and score
Administered by professionals
Normed for children aged 6-16
Stanford-Binet: norm set
People aged 2-85 years
Stanford-Binet: indexes and IQ scores
5 factor indexes: Fluid Reasoning (ability to use logic), Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, Working Memory
Verbal and performance for each of 5 indexes is measured
3 composite IQ scores: verbal IQ, nonverbal IQ, full scale IQ
Score range difference between WAIS/WISC and Stanford-Binet
Stanford-Binet: possible to score higher than 160 (not possible for WAIS or WISC)
Woodcock-Johnson: norm set
People aged 2-90
What Woodcock-Johnson is based on
Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory of 10 types of intelligence
Woodcock-Johnson: subtests and scores
7 composite scores
Full scale IQ
What kind of a construct is IQ?
For an IQ test, what do you do if factor scores are vastly different?
Present factor scores rather than overall score
Full scale IQ refers to...
Overall, composite IQ (# reported)
What is critical to scoring and interpreting the IQ test?
Behavioral observations: must determine if factors in examinee's behavior (e.g. motivation, mood, illness, etc.) influence performance
2 disorders that include intelligence in the criteria
Intellectual disability (IQ less than 70, impairments across multiple domains- occupational, educational, social function, activities of daily living)
Learning disorders (discrepancy between intelligence and achievement; math, reading, written expression)
Neither is based on intelligence alone
Response to intervention
Method of preventing struggling students from being placed in special ed
Students are provided regular instruction: progress is monitored
If they don't progress, they get additional instruction: progress is monitored
Those who still don't respond receive special education or special education evaluation