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Flashcards in Chemistry word associations Deck (115)
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1

Process in which there is a loss of hydrogen electrons

Oxidation

2

Process in which there is a gain of hydrogen electrons

Reduction

3

Replacement of hydrogen by a carboxyl group [-COOH]

Carboxylation

4

Enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a carboxyl group

Carboxylase

5

Removal of the carboxyl group [-COOH]

Decarboxylation

6

An enzyme that catalyzes the release of CO2 from compounds

Decarboxylase

7

Reaction that combines H2O with a salt to produce acid and base

Hydrolysis

8

An enzyme that causes hydrolysis

Hydrolase

9

Movement of a phosphate [PO4] from one molecule to another

Phosphorylation

10

An enzyme that removes a phosphate to an organic compound

Phosphatase

11

An enzyme that adds a phosphate to an organic compound

Kinase

12

An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of one group to another

Transferase

13

A substance which speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

Enzyme

14

Inactive precursor protein with an additional peptide attached

Pro-enzyme

15

Maximum velocity of a reaction

Vmax

16

The amount of substrate required to reach ½ of the Vmax

Kmax

17

A substance which slows down the rate of an enzyme reaction

Inhibitor

18

Competition and Allosterism

Enzymatic regulation

19

Actively competes with substrate for the active site

Competition

20

Chemical bond between two amino acids

Peptide bond

21

Chemical bond between the base bases found in DNA

Hydrogen bond

22

Chemical bond between glycerol and fatty acids

Ester bond

23

Chemical bond between two sugars

Glycosidic bind

24

Chemical bond between nucleotides

Phosphodiester

25

Constituents of starch

Amylose and amylopectin

26

Long, unbranched chains of glucose linked at C1 and C4- α 1,4 link

Amylose

27

Fewer branches of glucose with α 1,4  and 1,6 linked branches

Amylopectin

28

Comprised of glucose and fructose; found in table sugar and fruit

Sucrose

29

Contains galactose linked to glucose; found in milk; β 1,4 link

Lactose

30

Form in which excess glucose is stored in skeletal muscle

Glycogen

31

Aldopentose [5 Carbon] sugar

Ribose

32

Ketohexose [6 Carbon] sugar

Fructose

33

A crucial step that controls how fast or slow the pathway goes

Rate limiting step

34

The most important control point-rate limiting step in glycolysis

Phosphofructokinase

35

Number of pyruvate produced from one glucose in glycolysis

2

36

Number of ATP produced from the breakdown of one glucose molecule

4 ATP

37

Number of NADH produced from the breakdown of one glucose

2 NADH

38

Net ATP gain from the breakdown of one glucose molecule

2 ATP

39

Main fate of pyruvate

Converted to Acetyl CoA

40

Alternate fates of pyruvate

Lactate and Alanine

41

Process of creating new glucose from the end-products of glycolysis

Gluconeogenesis

42

Irreversible steps in glycolysis that are replaced in gluconeogenesis

Steps 1, 3 and 10

43

Location of gluconeogenesis

Mitochondria and cytoplasm

44

Lactate is converted to pyruvate which is converted to Glucose

Sequence of events

45

Causes Pyruvate to build up; results in excess lactic acid production

Biotin deficiency

46

Rate limiting step in gluconeogenesis

F1,6 bisphosphatase

47

Hormone which inhibits gluconeogenesis

Insulin

48

Location of Krebs cycle

Mitochondrial matrix

49

Destination of the energy harvested from the Krebs cycle

Electron Transport Chain

50

Number of ATPs generated from 1 NADH

3 ATP

51

Number of ATPs generated from 1 FADH2

2 ATP

52

Total ATP generated by the breakdown of one molecule of glucose

38 ATP

53

Alternate fuel types for the Krebs cycle

Proteins and fat

54

Succinyl CoA, Oxaloacetate, Fumarate and α-ketoglutarate

Sites at which proteins enter

55

α-ketoglutarate and Succinyl CoA

Sites at which fats can enter

56

Location of Electron Transport Chain

Inner mitochondrial matrix

57

Role of Electron Transport Chain

Transfer electrons to O2

58

A compound which has both reduce and oxidized form of a molecule

Redox pair

59

NAD [oxidized] and NADH [reduced]

Redox pair example

60

Drop-off point for NADH

Complex I

61

Drop-off point for FADH2

Complex II

62

Alternate name for CoQ10

Ubiquinone

63

Heme containing compounds that receive electrons from CoQH2

Cytochromes

64

Other metal which is important to the electron Transport Chain

Copper

65

Purpose of the Cori cycle

Prevents lactic acidosis

66

Purpose of the hexose monophosphate shunt

Produce NADPH, ribose

67

Location of the pentose phosphate pathway

Cytosol

68

Rate limiting enzyme

G6P dehydrogenase

69

Site of glycogen metabolism

Cytosol

70

RATE LIMITING enzyme; used to lengthen the glycogen chain

Glycogen Synthase

71

Chemical bonds between glucose molecules: mainly 1-4 links

Glycosidic bond

72

Rate Limiting enzyme in glycogenolysis, activated by ATP

Glycogen phosphorylase

73

Sites for glycogenolysis

Heart, liver and muscle

74

Name of enzyme that changes G1P to G6P

Phosphoglucomutase

75

Group consisting of Carbon with Oxygen and a hydroxyl attached

Carboxyl group

76

One with no double bond between the carbon atoms [C-C]

Saturated fatty acid

77

One with one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms

Unsaturated fatty acid

78

L inoleic acid [vegetable oil Ω-6] and linolenic acid [fish oil- Ω 3]

Essential fatty acids

79

Location of lipolysis

Mitochondria

80

Site of lipogenesis

Cytosol

81

Rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis and target for statins

HMG CoA reductase

82

Starting point for steroid hormone synthesis

Cholesterol

83

Essential amino acids

Phe, Val, Thr, Trp, Ile, Met, His, Leu and Lys

84

Non-essential amino acids

Pro, Try, Gly, Ala, Glu, Asp, Gln, Arg, Ser and Cys

85

Removal of the amine NH2 group

Deamination

86

Source of nitrogen for the urea cycle

Glutamate and alanine

87

Location of the urea cycle

Mitochondrion then cytosol

88

Rate limiting enzyme in the urea cycle

Carbamoyl PO4 synthase

89

Purine or Pyrimidine base PLUS sugar

Nucleoside

90

Purine or Pyrimidine base PLUS sugar AND phosphate

Nucleotide

91

Adenine and Guanine; used to make nucleosides and nucleotides

Purine bases

92

Cytosine, Uracil and Thymine

Pyrimidine bases

93

Adenine & Thymine; Cytosine & Guanine; Adenine & Uracil

Base pairs

94

Converts xanthine into uric acid

Xanthine oxidase

95

Process by which RNA template for protein synthesis is made from DNA

Transcription

96

Process by which RNA codon begins to make an protein

Translation

97

Water-soluble vitamins

D, A, K and E

98

Fat soluble vitamins

B and C

99

Anti-oxidants

Vitamin A,C, E and selenium

100

Used to make rhodopsin, helps in the differentiation of epithelial tissue

Vitamin A

101

Used in carboxylation of glutamate residue in making clotting factors

Vitamin K

102

Powerful antioxidant which mops free radicals; lipid antioxidant

Vitamin E

103

Cofactor in Pyruvate kinase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

Vitamin B1 [Thiamine]

104

Precursor for FMN and FAD in the ETC and Redox reactions

Vitamin B2 [Riboflavin]

105

Precursor for NAD and NADP in the Electron Transport Chain

Vitamin B3 [Niacin]

106

Acyl carrier as part of Coenzyme A; Pantene ProV [V=Five]

Vitamin B5 [Pantothenic acid]

107

Cofactor for several transaminase and decarboxylation reactions

Vitamin B6 [Pyridoxin]

108

Used in carboxylation reactions; deficiency causes lactic acidosis

Vitamin B7 [Biotin]

109

Used in the transfer of 1-Carbon units and make methionine and purines

Vitamin B9 [folic acid]

110

Cofactor for methionine and succinyl CoA manufacture

Vitamin B12 [cobalamin]

111

Cofactor in hydroxylation in the synthesis of collagen

Vitamin C [ascorbic acid]

112

Necessary in the Electron Transport Chain and found in prunes

Copper

113

Cofactor of carbonic anhydrase found in seafood, meat and whole grain

Zinc

114

Forms complexes with ATP and found in nuts

Magnesium

115

Helps with glucose transport into cells and found in oysters

Chromium