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Anatomy & Physiology 200 > Chemisty > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chemisty Deck (115):
1

Vertical rows in the periodic table

Groups. Elements in the same group have the same reactive properties. Number at the top tells us the number of electrons in the valence shell

2

Horizontal rows in the periodic table

Periods/rows. Elements in the same period have the same number of electron shells.

3

What are the four most common elements in the human body?

Oxygen (65%)
Carbon (19%)
Hydrogen (10%)
Nitrogen (3%)

4

What eight (non-CHON) elements are also present in the body?

Sulphur
Sodium
Chlorine
Calcium
Phosphorus
Iron
Magnesium
Potassium
(sullen sodden cheese, phobic irate magenta potatoes)
SNaP
CaKCl
FeMg

5

The Octet Rule

Atoms really really want to have 8 electrons in their valence shell. Or none at all.

6

How many electrons can the various electron shells hold?

First shell: 2
Second shell: 8
Any shell in between #2 and the valence shell: 2-18
Valence Shell: 8 (or 0)

7

Atomic Number

The number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Big number on top of elemental name in periodic table
No two elements have the same number of protons

8

Atomic Mass

The sum of the protons and neutrons
Measured in Daltons
In periodic table, given underneath name of element

9

Isotope

A variation of the same element due to difference in atomic max.
Difference in number of neutrons, since protons never change.

10

What are the isotope forms of Hydrogen?

Normal: no neutron
Deuterium: one neutron
Tritium: two neutrons

11

Half-life

The time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay into a more stable form.

12

Free Radicals

Atoms/molecules with unpaired electrons in their valence shell.
Highly reactive.
In the body, looking to "steal" electrons from cells (oxidation)

13

Ionic bonds

One element donates an electron to the other
Strong normally, but very weak in solution
Tend to form between a metal and non-metal
Ex. NaCl

14

Anion

Element that has gained an electron. Negatively charged

15

Cation

Element that has lost an electron. Positively charged

16

Ionization

The process of gaining or losing an electron

17

Dissociation

When ionic bonds break apart in solution. Produces electrolytes.

18

Covalent Bonds

When atoms share electrons. Very strong bond, and most common type of bond to occur in the body.
Ex. Methane gas. CH4

Have a tendency for polarity (when one atom has a strong attraction for the shared electrons than the other).

19

Polar Covalent Bond

When 2 atoms share the electrons unequally.
Allows greater electro-negativity
Ex. H20. The electron is more attracted to the oxygen, so the H20 molecule is positive on the Hydrogen end and negative on the Oxygen end.

20

Electro-negativity

The power to attract electrons to yourself

21

NonPolar Covalent Bonds

When 2 atoms share electrons equally.
Ex. CH4 (methane)

22

Hydrogen Bond

Weakest of the three bonds
Results from the attraction of opposite parts of molecules, not from electron sharing.
Ex. bonding of water molecules to each other

23

Chemical Reaction

The formation of new products due to the breakdown or creation of bonds

24

Potential Energy

The energy stored by matter due to its position

25

Kinetic Energy

Energy associated with motion or movement of matter

26

Exergonic reactions

Release energy. A+B => AB + heat

27

Endergonic reactions

Require energy to get started. A+B+heat = AB

28

Activation Energy

The amount of energy required to get a reaction occuring

29

Catalyst

Substances that speed up chemical reactions by reducing the activation energy required.
Remains unchanged at the end of the reaction

30

What are the four types of chemical reaction?

Anabolism
Catabolism
Exchange
Reversible

31

Anabolism

aka Synthesis reaction

A + B -> AB

Tend to be endergonic
Important to growth and healing

32

Catabolism

aka Decomposition reaction

AB -> A + B

Tend to be exergonic
Ex. breakdown of glycogen

33

Exchange Reaction

AB + CD -> AD + BC

Compensates for changes to physiological state and metabolism. If too acidic/basic the body will initiate exchange reactions to create buffers to restore homeostasis.

34

Reversible reactions

A + B AB

35

Inorganic compounds

Don't contain carbon.
Compose about 60% of the body

36

Intracellular fluid (ICF)

Fluid within the cell (part of cytoplasm)
Around 2/3 of total body fluids

37

Extracellular fluid (ECF)

Fluid outside cells
Around 1/3 of total body fluids
Itself composed of 80% interstitial fluids and 20% plasma

38

Oxidation-reduction reaction

oxidation: loss of electrons
reduction: gain of electrons

"Oxidation–reduction reactions are always parallel; when one substance is oxidized, another is reduced at the same time. When a food molecule, such as glucose, is oxidized, the energy produced is used by a cell to carry out its vari- ous functions."
(Tortora 38)

39

Plasma

ECF found only in blood vessels
Liquid constituent of blood
Approximately 20% of ECF

40

Solvent

An aqueous component with the ability to dissolve

41

Solutions

Made up of solvent (liquid) and solute (substance being dissolved)

42

Hydrolysis reaction

Water is added to break up the substance

43

Dehydration synthesis reaction

Water removed to create larger substances

44

Hydrophilic

Water loving
Anything polar is hydrophilic!!
Hydrophilic solutes will dissolve easily in water

45

Ion

A particle with either a positive or negative charge

46

Hydrophobic

Water fearing
Solutes that carry non-polar covalent bonds
Will not dissolve easily if at all in water
ex. Fats, oils

47

Heat capacity

The ability to absorb or release high amounts of energy with changes to own temperature.

Water has a very high heat capacity because most of the energy in the form of heat is used to break H bonds, so not much left to raise temperature.

48

Mixture

Combination of physically blended elements and/or compounds that are NOT held together by chemical bonds

49

Colloid

A solution in which the solutes are large enough to scatter light.

50

Suspension

A solution in which the solutes will, over time, separate into their different components

51

Viscosity

The measure of the physical tendency of a liquid to flow.

52

Mole

The measurement of the total number of molecules of a particular substance in a given volume of solution.

Measured in mol/L (aka Avogardro's number: 10 to the 23rd power x molecules)

53

Acid

A substance which dissociates into one or more H+ ion and one or more anions.

Because H+ is a single proton with one positive charge, an acid is referred to as a proton donor.

Because it increases the concentration of H+, the pH is decreased

54

Base

A substance which removes H+ from a solution. Usually dissociates into one or more OH- (hydroxide) ions and one or more cations.

Proton acceptor. Causes pH to increase

55

pH

Percentage of hydrogen. The expression of acidity/alkalinity. Based on the concentration of H+ moles/litre.

7 = neutral
7 = base

Each number denotes a ten-fold increase in the concentration of H+/litre.

56

Salt

A substance which, when dissociated, releases neither H+ nor OH-, but does release cations and anions.

Results from the reaction of an acid with a base.

57

Buffers

Chemical systems in the body composed of compounds which remove excess H+ and OH- out of solution so the fluids in the body maintain their pH.

Convert strong acids and bases into weak ones.

Prevent acidosis and alkalosis.

58

Carbonic Acid-Bicarboniate Buffer System

If acidic, the bicarbonate ion grabs an excess H+ to create carbonic acid, which is then broken down into water and carbon dioxide.

HCO3 & H+ --> H2CO3 --> H2O & CO2

If basic, carbonic acid breaks down into hydrogen and bicarbonate

H2CO3 --> H+ & HCO3-

59

Phosphate Buffer System

If acidic, monohydrogen phosphate (weak base) grabs H+ and becomes dihydrogen phosphate (weak acid)

H+ & HPO4- --> H2PO4-

If basic, dihydrogen phosphate attaches to an excess hydroxide ion to create water and monohydrogen phosphate.

OH- & H2PO4- --> H2O & HPO4-

60

Protein Buffefrs

Amine group of amino acids act as weak bases and will buffer acids.

Carboxyl group of amino acids will act as weak acids and will buffer bases.

Hemoglobin will also carry away H+

61

Carbon

Atomic #: 6 (therefore 6 protons and 6ish neutrons)
2nd row -- so two electron shells
Group IV -- so 4 electrons in valence shell

About 18.5% of total body mass

62

Four major categories of organics

1) Carbohydrates (CHOs)
2) Lipids (fats)
3) Proteins (made up of amino acids)
4) Nucleic acids (RNA & DNA)
and minor category:
5) ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

63

Organic compounds always contain ______ and are held together by _______ bonds.

carbon
covalent

64

Hydrocarbons

Carbons bound to hydrogen atoms. Found in carbon skeletons

65

What are the major functional groups in organic chemistry?

1. hydroxyll
2. sulfhydryl
3. carbonyl
4. carboxyl
5. ester
6. phosphate
7. amino

66

Hydroxyl group

Contain OH. Polar and hydrophilic.
R-O-H
Alcohol, the sterols

67

Sulfhydryl group

aka the Thiols
Contain SH group R-S-H
Help form amino acids

68

Carbonyl group

Ketones (breakdown products of fats and proteins) and aldehydes (dehydrogenated alcohols).

Polar and hydrophilic.

CO or CHO

69

Carboxyl group

Contain COOH
Help form amino acids
Can act as acids.
Hydrophilic.

70

Ester group

Found in fats, oils and triglycerides.
Also includes aspirin.

COO

71

Phosphate group.

Contains PO4.
Key component of ATP

72

Amino group

Contains NH3 (or NH2).
Can act as a base
Contributes to amino acids

73

Monomer

Smallest unit of any organic molecule

74

Polymer

Large organic molecule made of of monomers.
Usually formed by a dehydration synthesis reaction.

75

Isomer

Molecules with the same chemical formula but different chemical structures, allowing for different reactive properties.

Ex. glucose and fructose

76

Dehydration reaction

Removal of water to form peptide bond

A + B --> AB + H2O

77

Hydrolysis

Addition of water to break peptide bonds

AB + H2O --> A + B

78

Peptide bond

the primary linkage of all protein structures; the chemical bond between the carboxyl groups and amino groups that unites a peptide

A type of covalent bond.

79

Carbohydrates

CHOs
Molecules of carbon saturated with H+ and O2
Mostly end with -ose
3% body mass

80

Three classifications of carbohydrates

1. monosaccharides
2. disaccharides
3. polysaccharides

81

Monosaccharides

Simplest carbohydrate. Monomner
Include:
Glucose (in blood)
Fructose (in Fruit)
Galactose (in milk)
Deoxyribose (in DNA)
Riboses (in RNA)

82

Galactosemia

a genetic condition in which not enough galactase is produced to break down the galactose. Not the same as lactose intolerance

83

Disaccharide

Product of 2 monosaccharides united via dehydration synthesis

Ex. glucose + fructose --> sucrose + H2O
glucose + galactose --> lactose + H2O

84

Polysaccharide

Tens of thousands of monosaccharides in combination.
Include:
Glycogen (stored energy -- found in muscles and the liver)
Starches (found in plants -- used for pasta and other gustatory goodness)
Cellulose (stored in plants; indigestible)

85

Sources of ATP

Adenosine triphosphate
1) creatine phosphate
2) anaerobic metabolism
3) aerobic metabolism

86

Glycogenolysis

Breakdown of glycogen into glucose

87

Glycolysis

Breakdown of glycogen into pyruvate and indirectly into ATP

88

Glycogenesis

Making glycogen from glucose

89

Gluconeogenesis

Making glucose from fats or proteins.

90

Lipids

Hydrophobic, insoluble (not very polar)
Only very small lipids or lipids attached to proteins or sugars can dissolve in water.

91

What are the five types of lipids?

1. Fatty acids
2. Triglycerides
3. Phospholipids
4. Steroids
5. Eicosanoids

92

Fatty acids

Simplest fats. Monomers.
Consists of a carboxyl group and a hydrocarbon chain.
Can be catabolized to form ATP

93

Saturated fat

When a fatty acid has only a single covalent bond between the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain

Meats, dairy products, coconut and palm oil.

94

Unsaturated fats

If there is one or more double covalent bonds between carbon atoms of hydrocarbon chain

Creates a kink.

95

Monounsaturated fats

Only one double covalent bond between the fatty acids of the carbon chain.

Olive, peanut, canola and most nut oils.

96

Polyunsaturated fats

Multiple double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain. Kinkiest!

Corn, soybean, sunflower and some fish oils.

97

Triglyceride

Composed of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acid chains.

98

Phospholipids

Contains phosphorus
Major component of cellular membranes
Amphipathic (polar head, non polar tails)
When working together to form a membrane, allow non-polar molecules to pass easily (but not polar).

99

Steroids

Consists of 4 rings of carbon
Include sterols: (which also have at least one hydroxyl) group.
Cholesterol (precursor to Vit D and hormones)
Hormones
Bile salt
Vitamin D

100

Eicosanoids

Lipids derived from a 20 carbon fatty acid

Include:
1) prostaglandins (inflammatory response)
2) leukotrienes (allergy and inflammatory)
3) beta carotene (precursor to Vit A)
4) Vit E
5) Vit K

101

What are the six functions of proteins?

1) structural
2) regulatory
3) contractile
4) immunological
5) transport
6) catalytic

102

What are the monomers of proteins?

Amino acids

103

Amino acids

Contain carboxyl group (acid), an amine group (base) and a side chain. COOH-NH2-R

20 altogether (essential and non-essential)

104

Protein synthesis

The creation of proteins by creating peptide bonds between amino acids via dehydration synthesis.

Bond occurs between the N and the C

2 amino acids = dipeptide bond; 3 amino acids = tripeptide bond; lots of amino acids = polypeptide

105

Primary structure of proteins

unique sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.

Genetically determined.

106

Secondary structure of proteins

Repeated twisting of polypeptide chain into either an:
1) alpha helix; or
2) beta sheet

107

Tertiary structure of proteins

The secondary structure folds in upon itself to create a 3-D structure

108

Quaternary structure

Arrangement of 2 or more tertiary structures

109

Denaturing

When a protein is destroyed/altered

110

Enzyme

A protein which acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions. Reduces activation energy

Composed of an protein portion (apoenzyme) and a nonprotein portion (cofactor)

Enzymes are:
1) Highly specific
2) Efficient
3) Subject to cellular control

111

Nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

Found originally in the nucleus of the cell

Composed of
1) nitrogenous base
- adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil
2) pentose sugar (5-carbon sugar)
3) phosphate group PO4

112

DNA

deoxyribose nucleic acid

double helix

Purines: adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines: thymine and cytosine

113

RNA

ribonucleic acid

involved in protein synthesis

single stranded structure

Purines: adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines: URACIL and cytosine

114

Three types of RNA

1. mRNA (messenger) -- transcribes original DNA
2. tRNA (transport) -- involved in amino acid translation
3. rRNA (ribosomal) -- forms template for amino acid translation

115

ATP

Adenine triphosphate

Energy currency of the body

Consists of one adenine, 1 ribose, and a group of phosphates.

ATP + H2O -> ADP + energy + PO4 [uses ATPase]

in reverse, uses ATP-synthase

ADP + energy + PO4 --> ATP + H2O