Flashcards in Chemisty Deck (115):
Vertical rows in the periodic table
Groups. Elements in the same group have the same reactive properties. Number at the top tells us the number of electrons in the valence shell
Horizontal rows in the periodic table
Periods/rows. Elements in the same period have the same number of electron shells.
What are the four most common elements in the human body?
What eight (non-CHON) elements are also present in the body?
(sullen sodden cheese, phobic irate magenta potatoes)
The Octet Rule
Atoms really really want to have 8 electrons in their valence shell. Or none at all.
How many electrons can the various electron shells hold?
First shell: 2
Second shell: 8
Any shell in between #2 and the valence shell: 2-18
Valence Shell: 8 (or 0)
The number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Big number on top of elemental name in periodic table
No two elements have the same number of protons
The sum of the protons and neutrons
Measured in Daltons
In periodic table, given underneath name of element
A variation of the same element due to difference in atomic max.
Difference in number of neutrons, since protons never change.
What are the isotope forms of Hydrogen?
Normal: no neutron
Deuterium: one neutron
Tritium: two neutrons
The time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay into a more stable form.
Atoms/molecules with unpaired electrons in their valence shell.
In the body, looking to "steal" electrons from cells (oxidation)
One element donates an electron to the other
Strong normally, but very weak in solution
Tend to form between a metal and non-metal
Element that has gained an electron. Negatively charged
Element that has lost an electron. Positively charged
The process of gaining or losing an electron
When ionic bonds break apart in solution. Produces electrolytes.
When atoms share electrons. Very strong bond, and most common type of bond to occur in the body.
Ex. Methane gas. CH4
Have a tendency for polarity (when one atom has a strong attraction for the shared electrons than the other).
Polar Covalent Bond
When 2 atoms share the electrons unequally.
Allows greater electro-negativity
Ex. H20. The electron is more attracted to the oxygen, so the H20 molecule is positive on the Hydrogen end and negative on the Oxygen end.
The power to attract electrons to yourself
NonPolar Covalent Bonds
When 2 atoms share electrons equally.
Ex. CH4 (methane)
Weakest of the three bonds
Results from the attraction of opposite parts of molecules, not from electron sharing.
Ex. bonding of water molecules to each other
The formation of new products due to the breakdown or creation of bonds
The energy stored by matter due to its position
Energy associated with motion or movement of matter
Release energy. A+B => AB + heat
Require energy to get started. A+B+heat = AB
The amount of energy required to get a reaction occuring
Substances that speed up chemical reactions by reducing the activation energy required.
Remains unchanged at the end of the reaction
What are the four types of chemical reaction?
aka Synthesis reaction
A + B -> AB
Tend to be endergonic
Important to growth and healing
aka Decomposition reaction
AB -> A + B
Tend to be exergonic
Ex. breakdown of glycogen
AB + CD -> AD + BC
Compensates for changes to physiological state and metabolism. If too acidic/basic the body will initiate exchange reactions to create buffers to restore homeostasis.
A + B AB
Don't contain carbon.
Compose about 60% of the body
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
Fluid within the cell (part of cytoplasm)
Around 2/3 of total body fluids
Extracellular fluid (ECF)
Fluid outside cells
Around 1/3 of total body fluids
Itself composed of 80% interstitial fluids and 20% plasma
oxidation: loss of electrons
reduction: gain of electrons
"Oxidation–reduction reactions are always parallel; when one substance is oxidized, another is reduced at the same time. When a food molecule, such as glucose, is oxidized, the energy produced is used by a cell to carry out its vari- ous functions."
ECF found only in blood vessels
Liquid constituent of blood
Approximately 20% of ECF
An aqueous component with the ability to dissolve
Made up of solvent (liquid) and solute (substance being dissolved)
Water is added to break up the substance
Dehydration synthesis reaction
Water removed to create larger substances
Anything polar is hydrophilic!!
Hydrophilic solutes will dissolve easily in water
A particle with either a positive or negative charge
Solutes that carry non-polar covalent bonds
Will not dissolve easily if at all in water
ex. Fats, oils
The ability to absorb or release high amounts of energy with changes to own temperature.
Water has a very high heat capacity because most of the energy in the form of heat is used to break H bonds, so not much left to raise temperature.
Combination of physically blended elements and/or compounds that are NOT held together by chemical bonds
A solution in which the solutes are large enough to scatter light.
A solution in which the solutes will, over time, separate into their different components
The measure of the physical tendency of a liquid to flow.
The measurement of the total number of molecules of a particular substance in a given volume of solution.
Measured in mol/L (aka Avogardro's number: 10 to the 23rd power x molecules)
A substance which dissociates into one or more H+ ion and one or more anions.
Because H+ is a single proton with one positive charge, an acid is referred to as a proton donor.
Because it increases the concentration of H+, the pH is decreased
A substance which removes H+ from a solution. Usually dissociates into one or more OH- (hydroxide) ions and one or more cations.
Proton acceptor. Causes pH to increase
Percentage of hydrogen. The expression of acidity/alkalinity. Based on the concentration of H+ moles/litre.
7 = neutral
7 = base
Each number denotes a ten-fold increase in the concentration of H+/litre.
A substance which, when dissociated, releases neither H+ nor OH-, but does release cations and anions.
Results from the reaction of an acid with a base.
Chemical systems in the body composed of compounds which remove excess H+ and OH- out of solution so the fluids in the body maintain their pH.
Convert strong acids and bases into weak ones.
Prevent acidosis and alkalosis.
Carbonic Acid-Bicarboniate Buffer System
If acidic, the bicarbonate ion grabs an excess H+ to create carbonic acid, which is then broken down into water and carbon dioxide.
HCO3 & H+ --> H2CO3 --> H2O & CO2
If basic, carbonic acid breaks down into hydrogen and bicarbonate
H2CO3 --> H+ & HCO3-
Phosphate Buffer System
If acidic, monohydrogen phosphate (weak base) grabs H+ and becomes dihydrogen phosphate (weak acid)
H+ & HPO4- --> H2PO4-
If basic, dihydrogen phosphate attaches to an excess hydroxide ion to create water and monohydrogen phosphate.
OH- & H2PO4- --> H2O & HPO4-
Amine group of amino acids act as weak bases and will buffer acids.
Carboxyl group of amino acids will act as weak acids and will buffer bases.
Hemoglobin will also carry away H+
Atomic #: 6 (therefore 6 protons and 6ish neutrons)
2nd row -- so two electron shells
Group IV -- so 4 electrons in valence shell
About 18.5% of total body mass
Four major categories of organics
1) Carbohydrates (CHOs)
2) Lipids (fats)
3) Proteins (made up of amino acids)
4) Nucleic acids (RNA & DNA)
and minor category:
5) ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Organic compounds always contain ______ and are held together by _______ bonds.
Carbons bound to hydrogen atoms. Found in carbon skeletons
What are the major functional groups in organic chemistry?
Contain OH. Polar and hydrophilic.
Alcohol, the sterols
aka the Thiols
Contain SH group R-S-H
Help form amino acids
Ketones (breakdown products of fats and proteins) and aldehydes (dehydrogenated alcohols).
Polar and hydrophilic.
CO or CHO
Help form amino acids
Can act as acids.
Found in fats, oils and triglycerides.
Also includes aspirin.
Key component of ATP
Contains NH3 (or NH2).
Can act as a base
Contributes to amino acids
Smallest unit of any organic molecule
Large organic molecule made of of monomers.
Usually formed by a dehydration synthesis reaction.
Molecules with the same chemical formula but different chemical structures, allowing for different reactive properties.
Ex. glucose and fructose
Removal of water to form peptide bond
A + B --> AB + H2O
Addition of water to break peptide bonds
AB + H2O --> A + B
the primary linkage of all protein structures; the chemical bond between the carboxyl groups and amino groups that unites a peptide
A type of covalent bond.
Molecules of carbon saturated with H+ and O2
Mostly end with -ose
3% body mass
Three classifications of carbohydrates
Simplest carbohydrate. Monomner
Glucose (in blood)
Fructose (in Fruit)
Galactose (in milk)
Deoxyribose (in DNA)
Riboses (in RNA)
a genetic condition in which not enough galactase is produced to break down the galactose. Not the same as lactose intolerance
Product of 2 monosaccharides united via dehydration synthesis
Ex. glucose + fructose --> sucrose + H2O
glucose + galactose --> lactose + H2O
Tens of thousands of monosaccharides in combination.
Glycogen (stored energy -- found in muscles and the liver)
Starches (found in plants -- used for pasta and other gustatory goodness)
Cellulose (stored in plants; indigestible)
Sources of ATP
1) creatine phosphate
2) anaerobic metabolism
3) aerobic metabolism
Breakdown of glycogen into glucose
Breakdown of glycogen into pyruvate and indirectly into ATP
Making glycogen from glucose
Making glucose from fats or proteins.
Hydrophobic, insoluble (not very polar)
Only very small lipids or lipids attached to proteins or sugars can dissolve in water.
What are the five types of lipids?
1. Fatty acids
Simplest fats. Monomers.
Consists of a carboxyl group and a hydrocarbon chain.
Can be catabolized to form ATP
When a fatty acid has only a single covalent bond between the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain
Meats, dairy products, coconut and palm oil.
If there is one or more double covalent bonds between carbon atoms of hydrocarbon chain
Creates a kink.
Only one double covalent bond between the fatty acids of the carbon chain.
Olive, peanut, canola and most nut oils.
Multiple double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain. Kinkiest!
Corn, soybean, sunflower and some fish oils.
Composed of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acid chains.
Major component of cellular membranes
Amphipathic (polar head, non polar tails)
When working together to form a membrane, allow non-polar molecules to pass easily (but not polar).
Consists of 4 rings of carbon
Include sterols: (which also have at least one hydroxyl) group.
Cholesterol (precursor to Vit D and hormones)
Lipids derived from a 20 carbon fatty acid
1) prostaglandins (inflammatory response)
2) leukotrienes (allergy and inflammatory)
3) beta carotene (precursor to Vit A)
4) Vit E
5) Vit K
What are the six functions of proteins?
What are the monomers of proteins?
Contain carboxyl group (acid), an amine group (base) and a side chain. COOH-NH2-R
20 altogether (essential and non-essential)
The creation of proteins by creating peptide bonds between amino acids via dehydration synthesis.
Bond occurs between the N and the C
2 amino acids = dipeptide bond; 3 amino acids = tripeptide bond; lots of amino acids = polypeptide
Primary structure of proteins
unique sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
Secondary structure of proteins
Repeated twisting of polypeptide chain into either an:
1) alpha helix; or
2) beta sheet
Tertiary structure of proteins
The secondary structure folds in upon itself to create a 3-D structure
Arrangement of 2 or more tertiary structures
When a protein is destroyed/altered
A protein which acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions. Reduces activation energy
Composed of an protein portion (apoenzyme) and a nonprotein portion (cofactor)
1) Highly specific
3) Subject to cellular control
DNA and RNA
Found originally in the nucleus of the cell
1) nitrogenous base
- adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil
2) pentose sugar (5-carbon sugar)
3) phosphate group PO4
deoxyribose nucleic acid
Purines: adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines: thymine and cytosine
involved in protein synthesis
single stranded structure
Purines: adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines: URACIL and cytosine
Three types of RNA
1. mRNA (messenger) -- transcribes original DNA
2. tRNA (transport) -- involved in amino acid translation
3. rRNA (ribosomal) -- forms template for amino acid translation