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Histology

The study of tissue

1

Four main tissue types

Epithelial
Connective
Muscular
Nervous

2

Three primary germ layers

Endoderm
Mesoderm
Ectoderm

3

What tissues derive from endoderm?

Epithelial
GI
Respiratory
Urinary tract

4

What tissues derive from mesoderm?

Epithelial
Most muscle
Connective (incl blood)

5

What tissues derive from ectoderm?

Epithelial
Nervous

6

What are the five types of cell-to-cell junctions?

1. Tight
2. Adherens
3. Desmosome
4. Hemidesmosome
5. Gap junction

7

Tight junctions

Transmembrane proteins fuse outer surfaces of adjacent cells
Act like surgical sutures. Prevent leaking.

Found in stomach, intestines, bladder.

8

Adherens junctions

Contain protein plaques which adhere to actin microfilaments, which in turn attach to transmembrane cadherin glycoproteins, which project between cells.

May form adhesion belts

Found in cells that need to be held together during contraction (ie in intestines)

9

Desmosome

Like Adherens junctions, but attach to keratin intermediate filaments. Like buttons.

Found in epidermis and cardiac cells

10

Hemidesmosomes

Half a desmosome, but connects plasma membrane to a basement membrane instead of another plasma membrane.

External membrane protein = laminin

Also the transmembrane glycoprotein is integrin rather than cadherin.

Found connecting dermis and hypodermis layers.

11

Gap junctions.

Tunnel-like connections (connexons) made up of glycoprotein connexin.

More of a communications bridge between cells than a structural attachment.

Allows for communicatios and transfer of waste products, chemicals or electrical signals, ions and nutrients.

Found in cornea cells, muscle and nerve cells and GI and urinary cells.

12

Mesenchyme

A form of embryonic connective tissue.
From which ALL connective tissue arises.
Has stem cell capabilities.

13

Key roles of epithelium

Protection from chemical and physical damage
Absorption of nutrients
Excretion
Secretion



14

What are the surfaces of epithelial cells?

Apical
Lateral
Basal surfaces

15

Apical surface

Free side of epithelial cells that open up into the body cavity, or lumen of an organ or vessel.

May contain cilia or micro villus

16

Lateral surface

The side of an epithelial cell that is shared with adjacent cells.

Where cell junctions found.

17

Basal surface

The side of an epithelial cell that is opposite to the apical surface.

Responsible for attachment to basement membranes and underlying connective tissues.

18

Basement membrane

Layer that attaches epidermis to connective tissues.

19

What is the basement membrane composed of?

Basal lamina (collagen fibres, laminin protein, glycoproteins and proteiglycans)

Reticular lamina (fibrous proteins created by fibroblasts).

20

What are the three arrangement types of epithelial cells?

Simple
Pseudo stratified
Stratified.

21

Simple epithelium

Single layer of cells. Easy exchange of substances
Ex. Capillaries or alveolar sacs

22

Pseudostratified epithelium

Appears multilayered but is on fact only single layered. Contain projections that give multilayered appearance.

Ex. Nasal mucosa

23

Stratified epithelium

Multiple layers of cells.
Areas reuniting strength and reinforcement, or where cells slough off easily.
Ex. Skin.

24

What are the four epithelial cell shapes?

Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
Transitional

25

Squamous epithelial cells

Flat. Allow for a high rate of absorption

Ex. Lungs and capillaries

26

Cuboidal epithelial cells

Cube shaped with micro villus. Allows for secretion and absorption.

27

Columnar epithelial cells

Column shaped with microvilli. Allows for secretion and absorption.

28

Transitional epithelial cells

Flat to cuboidal shaped.
Allows for distension and stretch.

29

Goblet cell

Epithelial.
Modified columnar cells that secrete mucous.

Unicellular exocrine glands.

30

Ciliates

Epithelial cell with cilia

31

Mesothelium

Simple squamous epithelium of serous membranes

32

Serous membranes

Line cavities (parietal) and the outside of organs (visceral)

33

Endothelium

Simple squamous epithelium of blood and lymphatic vessels.

34

Glands

Specialized epithelial/dermal tissues that produce secretions and release them into:
- ducts
- the blood stream, or
- onto the surface of organs

35

What are the two types of glands?

Exocrine
Endocrine

36

Exocrine gland

Secretes into ducts to be carried away into the lumen or onto skin surfaces.

Short distance

37

Lumen

Inside space of a tubular structure.

38

Three functional classifications of exocrine glands:

1. Merocrine
2. Apocrine
3. Holocrine

39

Merocrine

An exocrine gland in which secretions are made in the cell and released in vesicles when ready.

Ex. Pancreatic and salivary glands

40

Apocrine

An exocrine gland in which secretions are accumulated on apical surfaces until ready for release.

Ex. Mammary glands

41

Holocrine

An exocrine gland in which secretions are accumulated in the cytosol and released in a large, excretory vesicle.

Ex. Sebaceous gland.

42

Apoptosis

Programmed cell death

43

What are the structural classifications of exocrine glands?

Simple (does not branch)
- tubular
- branched
- coiled tubular
- acinar
- branched acinar

Compound (branches)
- tubular
- acinar
- tubuloacinar.

44

Endocrine glands

Secrete hormones into the bloodstream for use elsewhere.

45

Chondroblasts

Cells that make cartilage

46

Fibroblasts

Most numerous connective tissue cells
Make fibre and produce/secrete ground substance.

47

Ground substance

The extracellular matrix of connective tissue

Mostly composed of H2O and serves as support and binding

May be fluid, semi fluid, gelatinous or calcified.

48

Macrophage

Develop from monocytes
Involved in inflammatory and immune response
"Big eater"

49

Six types of Connective tissue

Fibroblasts
Macrophages
Plasma
Mast cells
Adipocytes
Leukocytes/WBC

50

Plasma

Main producers of antibodies

Develops from b-lymphocytes and involved in immune response.

51

Mast cells

Produce histamines. Involved in inflammatory response

Vasodilate blood vessels; vasoconstricts bronchioles

52

Adipocytes

Produce/store/secrete lipids

53

White blood cells

Aka Leukocytes

Allergic and immune response

54

Matrix

Substance that surrounds cells

Consists of ground substance an GAGs

55

GAGs

Glyco-Amino Glycans

The organic substances dissolved in ground substance. made up of proteins, polysaccharides and fibronectin.

56

Hyluronic acid

Fluid Protein found in GAGs

Lubricates joints and helps maintain shape of eyeball.

57

What are the polysaccharides found in GAGs?

Chondroitin sulphate (cartilage, bone, skin and blood vessels)

Dermatan sulphate (skin, tendon, blood vessels and valves)

Keratan sulphate (bone, cartilage and eye balls)

58

Fibronectin

Main adhesion protein in connective tissue.

Binds collagen fibres to ground substance, and cells to ground substance.

59

What are the three main types of fibres?

Collagen
Elastic
Reticular

60

Collagen fibres

Made up of collagen proteins

Provide the majority of strength and stability in cartilage, tendons and ligaments

61

Elastic fibres

Made up of elastin and fibrillin fibres

Allows for elasticity and extensibility of fibres (up to 150% of original length).

62

Reticular fibres.

Made up of collagen protein, but thinner and more widespread, forming a network.

Aids in support and strength.

63

Stroma

Bed/covering formed by reticular fibres.

Forms the internal structure of organs that gives them their characteristic structure and shape.

Also forms the basement membrane

64

What are the two forms of embryonic connective tissue?

Mesenchyme
Mucous

65

Mesenchyme

Embryonic tissue from which all connective tissue arises

66

Mucous connective tissue

Embryonic.

Wharton's Jelly

Umbilical tissue with a mucous-like structure that contains a form of mesenchyme.

67

What are the five types of mature connective tissue?

Loose
Dense
Cartilage
Bone tissue
Liquid

68

Loose connective tissue: types

1. Loose areolar
2. Loose adipose
3. Loose reticular.

69

Loose areolar connective tissue

Strength, elastic and support

Found in subcutaneous layer.

Contains most types of connective tissue cells

70

Loose adipose connective tissue

Temperature regulation, support and protection.

Found in subcutaneous layer.
Mainly adipocytes

71

Loose reticular connective tissue

Reticular cells. Found in stroma of internal organs

Support, structure and binding together of other tissues.

72

What are the types of dense connective tissue?

1. Dense regular (tendons and ligaments)
2. Dense irregular (epidermis, heart valves, sheaths, periosteum)
3. Dense elastic (blood vessels, lungs) - show up as yellow.

73

Cartilage

Dense network of collagen and elastin embedded in chondroitin sulphate.

74

Chondrocytes

Cells of mature cartilage.

75

Three types of cartilage:

1. Hyaline
2. Fibrocartilage
3. Elastic cartilage

76

Hyaline cartilage

Collagen intertwined with ground substance. Provides smooth surface for movement.

Most abundant. Weakest.

Found in long bones, ribs, trachea and nose

77

Fibrocartilage

Collagen intertwined within the matrix.
Support, joining structures together

Strongest form of cartilage

Knees, iVDs, pubic symphysis

78

Elastic cartilage

Mostly elastin fibres. Very stretchy.

Ears. Epiglottis.

79

Bone

Composed of osseus cells, red and yellow bone marrow.

Stores calcium and phosphate

Support protection structure.

80

2 types of bone tissue

Compact

Spongy

81

Two types of liquid connective tissue

Blood
Lymph

82

Blood plasma

The extracellular matrix of blood

83

Three types of blood cells

Red blood cells
White bold cells
Platelets

84

Lymph

ECF of the lymphatic system. Involved in immune reactions and combatting infections.

85

Functions of muscle tissue

Initiating movement
Heat production
Posture and form

86

Three types of muscle tissue;

Skeletal (voluntary, striated)
Smooth (involuntary, unstriated)
Cardiac (involuntary, striated)

87

Two types of nervous tissue

Neurons (nerve cells)
Neuroglia (supportive)

88

Membranes

Sheets of tissue that line or cover a portion of the body

Can cover:
1. Cavities
2. Organs
3. Tracts

89

Alimentary canal

Mouth to bum.

90

Two types of membranes:

1. Epithelial
2. Synovial

91

Three types of epithelial membranes:

A. Mucous
B. Serous
C. Cutaneous.

92

Mucous membranes

Aka mucosa

Protective layer that opens onto the exterior of the body.

Respiratory, GI, reproductive and urinary.

Composed of epithelial layer and connective tissue layer (Lamina propria)

93

Serous membranes

Aka serosa

Line cavities that do not open to the outside world.
Two layers: parietal (cavity wall) and visceral (surrounds organ)
In between the layers, mesothelioma secretes serous fluid, which allows for adherence and movement.

94

Cutaneous membrane

Epidermis and dermis.

95

Synovial membranes

Found only in joints
Composed of synoviocytes, which secrete synovial fluid.
Pops caused by NO2.