What structures protect the brain?
Cerebrospinal fluid Meninges (three layers: pia, arachnoid and dura)
Aka cerebrum or neocortex. Contains frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal lobes
What is the frontal lobe primarily responsible for?
Short and long term memory, personality, intelligence, music, artistry
What is the parietal lobe primarily responsible for?
Reading, writing, comprehension, analytical reasoning.
What are the temporal lobes primarily responsible for?
What are the occipital lobes primarily responsible for?
What are the parts of the brain stem?
Pons Medulla oblongata Midbrain
Part of the brain stem. Relay centre for signals.
Centre for autonomic control and vital functions (breathing, HR, BP etc)
Contains important nerve tracts and the substantia nigra.
In midbrain. Contains neurons that produce dopamine Damaged in Parkinson's.
Contains: Thalamus Hypothalamus Epithalamus
In diencephalon Relay station for signals
In diencephalon Centre for autonomic control. Non-vital functions (controls via hormone production)
In diencephalon Centre for sleep and circadian rhythms
Cauliflower Located posterior-inferior. Coordination of sensory input and motor output. Ensures that what's being ordered is being done. Allows for smooth, refined, synchronized movements.
Three types if nerve cells (by function)
Sensory (afferent) -- input Associative -- integrative Somatic (efferent) -- output
12 specialized nerves that exit out base if brain
Small masses if nervous tissue found outside of the brain and spinal cord.
Collection of nerve cell bodies within the brain and spinal cord
Collection of fluid, built up around a soft tissue structure. Idiopathic. Tend to form around tendons or joints in wrists, hands or feet.
Bundles of nerves that regulate digestive organs Consists if nerve riots that exit the spinal cord and innervate GI tract and structures.
Encased in vertebral column Houses approximately 100 million neurons 31 pairs of spinal nerves that exit the spinal cord at each and every level (bilaterally).
Functions of the nervous system
Sensory -- afferent Integrative -- interneuron or association neuron -- simple or complex reflexes -- most complex and intricate Motor -- efferent. -- can be sympathetic, parasympathetic, voluntary or involuntary.
Three steps of a simple reflex
1. sensory neurons detect 2. Action potentials sent to brain and/or spinal cord via Afferent neurons. CNS determines what is to be done (Integration) 3. Command sent via Efferent neurons
Three steps of a complex reflex
1. Sensory neurons detect. Signal sent to brain via afferent neurons 2 Brain registers input and fires signal to other parts of brain to integrate, analyze and respond. Decision making by committee 3. Command sent via efferent neurons
Central Nervous System
CNS a. Brain (any tissue above the foramen magnum) and encased within the cranial cavity + b. Spinal Cord (foramen magnum to sacrum -- located within vertebral column)
Peripheral Nervous System
PNS All nervous tissue outside of the CNS Subdivided into Somatic, Autonomic and Enteric
Somatic Nervous System
SNS Voluntary Includes: Sensory nerves from special senses Motor neurons to conduct from CNS to skeletal muscle
Autonomic Nervous System
ANS Involuntary Includes: Sensory receptors from internal organs Motor neurone from CNS to smooth muscles, internal organs Further divided into Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems
Sympathetic Nervous System
Part of autonomic nervous system Responsible for fight or flight
Parasympathetics Nervous System
Part of ANS Responsible for rest & digest, feed & breed Responsible for normalizing and bringing body back to homeostasis after activity
Seen in ANS. One organ is innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons
Enteric Nervous System
Involuntary ENS Only involved with GI tract Sensory and somatic/motor pathways
Two types of nervous tissue
An action potential which involves a neuron
Speed of nerve impulse
1/1000 of a second
Finger-like projections of a neuron which receive input
The long, thin, cylindrical projection of a neuron. The shaft.
Where axon meets neuronal body
Area of axon hillock where action potentials are triggered
cytoplasm of axon
Membrane of axon
AKA the Axon Terminal End of the axon, often bulge out into synaptic end bulb
Portion of axon closest to axon hillock
Branches off the axon that contribute to other circuits
Nerve cell body, or soma Contains the nucleus and organelles
Bundles of rough ER which produce proteins specific to neurons
Gap where two or more neurone meet
Main role is to support, nourish and protect neurons
Brain tumour arising out of glial cells
What are the neuroglial cells of the CNS?
1. astrocytes 2. oliogodenrocytes 3. microglia 4. ependyma
CNS neuroglia Helps form the blood brain barrier Star shaped
Blood brain barrier
Tightly sealed lining that helps maintain the selective permeability of capillaries in the nervous system to help prevent leakage or attack.
Forms the myelin sheath around CNS axons (similar to Schwann cells of PNS)
Phagocytes of the nervous system. Akin to macrophages
Line inside of spinal canal and ventricles of the brain. Main role is production and circulation of cerebral spinal fluid
What are the neuroglial cells of the PNS?
Schwann cells Satellite cells
Form myelin sheath of the PNS
Satellite cells (neuro)
Supports and protects neuronal cell bodies in the PNS Help with dendritic and axon repair Helps regulate substances between neuron and interstitial fluid
Two projections of axons, one sensory and one ending in synaptic bulbs that continue onto CNS
One axon and one dendrite Can be found in retina, olfactory and auditory nerves
Most common in CNS Has one axon and multiple dendrites
Found in cerebellum. Very luscious looking dendrites
Found only in cerebral cortex. Pyramidal neuronal cell body
Nervous tissue that contains: cell bodies dendrites axon terminal unmyelinated axons neuroglial cells Superficial in brain (cortex) and deep in spinal cord
The portion of nervous tissue that contains myelinated axons. Deep in brain, superficial in spinal cord.
Covering and insulation of axons by neuroglial cells (oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells) that allows for increased rate and efficiency of impulse transmission.
The sheath of the oligodendrocyte or Schwann cell (like sarcolemma)
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps between myelin sheaths between which the action potential jumps.
Progressive, degenerative, autoimmune condition of the myelin sheaths of the CNS. Sheaths replaced by fibrous plaque (sclerotic) Progressive weakness, double vision, fatigue, parasthesias, and other neurological deficits.
What are the two types of motor neuron?
Upper motor neuron (UMN) Lower motor neuron CNS --> UMN --> LMN --> muscle/gland/organ
The electrical voltage difference across the cell membrane. Means the cell is polarized
Resting membrane potential
Sodium Potassium Pump
Pumps 3 Na+ out for every 2 K+ in to help establish resting membrane potential.
Producing a change in the electrical potential of a cell. Na+, K+, Sodium-postassium pump
What are the main ions involved in nerve impulses?
Sodium (Na+) -- concentrated higher outside cell -- most abundant cation in extracellular fluid Potassium (K+) -- concentrated higher inside the cell -- most abundant cation in intracellular fluid Chloride (Cl-) -- concentrated outside the cell -- most abundant anion found in extracellular fluid Also: Phosphate (PO4-) large, mostly inside the cell Calcium (Ca+) -- concentrated outside cell -- most abundant (cation) mineral inside the body
Four kinds of ion channels in the nerve cell
Leakage Voltage gated Ligand gated Mechanically gated
Leakage gated channels
Alternate between open and closed Most membranes have more K+ channels than Na+, so more permeable to K+ Concentrated ate axon hillock and axon membranes, although present everywhere on membrane Plays key role in Resting potential
Voltage gated channels
Open and close in response to a change in membrane potential. Play key role in Action potential Concentrated at axon and axon hillocks
Ligand gated channels
"Lock & key" Open and close in response to chemical, hormonal or ionic stimuli and/or NT signal. Involved in graded potential Concentrated at axon terminals, and dendrites and cell bodies
Mechanically gated channels
Open and close in response to mechanical stimulus -- i.e. vibrations, pressure, stretch. Involved in graded potentials Concentrated at axon terminals, dendrites and cell bodies.
What are the two types of potentials
Graded and action
Small deviation from resting potential (of -70mV) Can be depolarizing (less neg.) or hyper polarizing (more neg.) Involve ligand gated and mechanically gated channels No conduction and therefore localized Begin at dendrites and cell bodies No refractory period and thus subject to summation
Two types of summation
At trigger zone, many synapses summated together at the same time
Repetitive successive summation
Involve voltage gated and leakage channels Have refractory period and therefore not affected by summation ==> All or Nothing Arises from trigger zones at axon hillock
What is the sequence of an Action Potential
Resting (voltage gated Na+ channels resting; voltage gated K+ channels closed) Stimulus causes depolarization Once depolarization reaches threshold (-55 mV), Na+ channels open --> Depolarization Phase Rush of Na + into cell changes potential from -55 to +30 mV Voltage-gated K+ channels open; Na+ channels inactivating Exodus of K+ out of cell --> Repolarization +30 to -90 mV Voltage-gated K+ channels close. Resting potential of -70mV achieved
How much of what does the sodium potassium pump pump?
3Na+ Out, 2K+ in. Makes cell more negative
All or Nothing law
When depolarization reaches threshold, AP is generated. AP is always the same size and amplitude, regardless.
Minimum amount of voltage needed to generate an action potential (-55mV in a neuron)
The time frame following an AP in which no other AP can be generated.
2 types of refractory periods
a) Absolute. (no how no way. Coincides with the time Na+ channels open -- Depolarization) b) Relative. (try harder. Coincides with the time Na+ channels closed but K+ channels open. Repolarization)
What are the two categories of neurotransmitters?
Small molecule neurotransmitters Neuropeptides
What are the categories of Small Molecule Neurotransmitters
1. Acetylcholine 2. Amino Acids 3. Catecholamines (Biogenic Amines) 4. Serotonin 5. Nitric Oxide
Excitatory NT at NMJ. Propogates AP further.
Amino Acid (small molecule neurotransmitters)
Excitatory -- help lower threshold for activation 1. Glutamate (glutamic acid) 2. Aspartate (aspartic acid) Inhibatory -- blocks/inhibits propagation of AP by increasing threshold for activation 3. GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) 4. Glycine -- inhibitory effects at NMJ
What are all catecholamines derived from?
The amino acid Tyrosine
AKA biogenic amines 1. Epinephrine (E) -- released by adrenals/ arousal, energy and muscle tone. AKA adrenaline 2. Norepinephrine (NE) -- mood and arousal. AKA noradrenaline 3. Dopamine (DA) -- mood and pleasure.
Relationship between Dopamine and Parkinson's and Schizophrenia
Parkinson's: death of substantial nigra --> not enough DA Schizophrenia: too much DA
5-HTP Hydroxytryptamine Sensory perception, appetite, mood, sleep regulation
NO (not N2O) Both inhibitory and excitatory depending on receptors involved. Also causes vasodilation.
Membrane potential is created by:
1. Difference between 3 sodium out and 2 potassium in. 2. Presence of large negative proteins inside cell. (Made partly of COOH- which is really negative) 3. Lots of Phosphate floating around cytosol (waiting to make ATP)
Two types of nerve impulses
Continuous nerve impulse
No myelin sheath Nerve impulse travels along membrane by opening and closing of adjacent ion channels.
Saltatory nerve impulse.
Nerve impulses jump from node of ranvier to node of ranvier along myelinated axon. Speedy fast.
Three types of nerve axons
A B C
A Nerve Fibres
100% myelinated. Super fast. 130 m/sec Sensory nerves and motor neurons of skeletal muscle Thickest
B Nerve Fibres
100% myelinated 15 m/sec ANS and visceral organs.
C Fibre Nerves
Not myelinated 2 m/sec Reproductive, excretory, digestive Long refractory period
Two types of synaptic junctions
Use gap junctions Found in ANS, smooth muscle and cardiac muscles. Signal passes through connexon protein Fast communication. Synchronization of signals n
AP arrives at presynaptic neuron Voltage gated Ca+ channels open. Ca+ flows inward, stimulates exocytosis of NT. NT flows across synapse and attaches to ligand gates channels. Inhibits or excites.
Enkephalins -- blocks pain Endorphins -- blocks pain Substance P -- enhance perception of pain
Types of neural circuits
Simple series Divergence Convergence Reverberating Parallel after discharge.
Simple series circuit
One neuron stimulates another, which in turn stimulates another. Unusual.
Divergent neural circuits
One neuron stimulates a few others, each of which stimulates multiple others.
Convergent neural circuits
Multiple neurons stimulate one single neuron. Spatial Summarize effect.
Reverberating neural circuit
Similar to simple circuit, but neurons reverberate backwards to stimulate earlier neurons. Extended, coordinated movements like breathing.
Parallel after discharge neural circuit
Single presynaptic cell stimulate multiple neurons, which all synapse back to a common post synaptic cell.
Capability to adapt and change
Birth and growth of new neurons from undifferentiated stem cells.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF)
Recently discovered chemical that can trigger mitosis in neuronal cells
(de)granulation of nissl bodies within the neuron as part of repair process
Degeneration if distal portion of axon and myelin sheath as part if repair.