What is extravasation of IV drugs? What can chemo drugs cause?
Leakage of the drug into surrounding tissue
Extravasation of cytotoxics Can lead to permanent tissue damage
Chemotherapy can cause Neutropenic sepsis, a MEDICAL EMERGENCY. This is essentially neutropenia. What are the symptoms?
General Malaise/ high temp above 37.5 (due to infection)
Shivering/ flu-like symptoms
Uncontrolled gum/ nose bleeds (due to low platelets)
Mouth ulcers (worse than usual)
Diarrhoea/ uncontrolled vomiting (dont forget- chemo can cause some vomiting itself)
Advise patient to go to A&E asap and not to take paracetamol
What are the Side effects of Chemotherapy?
Oral mucositis- inflammation of the mouth- ulcers and pain or difficulty swallowing.
Nausea and vomitting
Hyperuricaemia (high uric acid level)
Which Chemo drugs can only be given by IV administration only?
e.g. Vinblastine, Vincristine (all the Vin's)
Which two immunosuppressant drugs used in chemo have a lot of interactions, plus must always maintain the same brand?
What is important to let patients know on therapy with Azathioprine?
Reporting- Blood disorders- sore throat, mouth ulcers, bleeding, fever- seek medical attention
Which chemo drugs have a lower emetogenic (vomitting) potential?
Vinca alkaloids- vinblastine, vincristine
Highly emetogenic: Cisplatin, dacarbazine
How much will a patient recieving treatment for unpleasant side effects they experienced from their last dose of chemotherapy, have to pay for their prescription of Folinic acid (used for methotrexate side effects)?
Those on cancer meds and on meds for effects of cancer are medically exempt
Tamoxifen is usually used for breast cancer at a dose of 20mg daily. It can increase the risk of another cancer: ______ cancer. It can also result in thromboembolism and patients are required to report symptoms like?
Symptoms such as SOB, pain in one leg
Which class of chemotherapy drug is Cardio toxic and associated with cardiomyopathy?
What class of anti cancer drugs are useful for lung and breast cancers?
Vinca- alkaloids (vincristine, vinblastine)
Also for Leukaemias and Lymphomas
What drug is used as a protectorant from cytotoxic induced urothelial toxcitiy such as heamorrhagic cystitis/ blood in urine?
What antiemetic is indicated for chemo-therapy induced nausea and vomiting?
What would a high temperature following a dose of Chemo indicate?
Remember neutropenia warning signs = fever- this is all it is
Which 2 anticancer drugs DO NOT cause bone marrow suppression?
Bleomycin (an anthracycline cytotoxic antibiotic)
When does bone marrow suppression, caused by most chemo drugs bar vincristine and bleomycin, usually occur?
7 -10 days after administration