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Flashcards in Oral antidiabetics Deck (40):
1

How do Sulfonylureas work?

Increase insulin secretion from the pancreas

2

Which are short acting and which are long acting sulfonylureas? (5)

Short acting:

Gliclazide
Glipizide
Tolbutamide

Longer acting:
Glimepramide
Glibenclamide (longest acting)

3

Which sulfonyurea is most prone to causing Hypoglyceamia, and therefore should be avoided in which population group?

Glibencamide (longest acting)

Avoid use in the elderly

4

How should sulfonylurea induce Hypoglyceamia be treated?

Hypoglyceamia can persist for many hours.
It must always be treated in hospital

 

NB: Hypoglyceamia with sulfonylureas is uncommon and usually indicates excessive dosage

5

When in the T2 diabetes treatment guidelines is a sulfonylurea indicated?

After diet/ lifestyle, then metformin alone have been tried:

 Can use a sulfonylurea instead if metformin Contra-indicated, patient is NOT overweight or rapid response is needed as glucose levels very high.

If metformin alone does not work, can then add in a sulfonylurea

6

What side effects can sulphonylureas cause? (4)

Weight gain

GI disturbance: Diarrhoea, constipation, nausea, vomitting

Fever (usually in first 6- 8 weeks)

Jaundice (avoid in severe liver impairment)

7

What is Metformins Mechanism of Action?

It is a Biguanide:

Decreases gluconeogenesis (production of new glucose) and increases peripheral utilisation of glucose

Remember: metformin produce normoglyceamia rather than hypoglyceamia

NB: It does not increase insulin secretion like other oral antidiabetics, therefore it does not cause weight gain!

8

Main side effects of Metformin? (3)

GI upset- take with food, use MR if intolerable

Weight loss

Taste disturbance

9

Metformin can cause Lactic Acidosis. What would be potential risk factors for this?

risk factors such as

renal dysfunction (as metformin accumulates),

liver disease,

heavy alcohol ingestion

IV contrast media- reduces renal function therefore lactic acidosis risk

Poor tissue perfusion/ poor renal function= risk of lactic acidosis 

10

What vitamin can Metformin cause deficiency in?

Vitamin B12

Can lead to vitamin B12 deficient aneamia: symptoms= increased tirednes, weakness, mouth ulcers, pins and needles 

11

When does metformin become contra-indicated in renal impairment?

In severe renal impairment

eGFR falls below 30 ml/min/ 1.73m2

 

In moderate impairment (eGFR under 45) a dose reduction is needed

12

Max dose of metformin?

2g a day

13

What is Acarbose and what is its mechanism?

Alpha glucosidase inhibitor- (remember Alpha= Acarb) this enzyme breaks down starch and disaccharides to glucose, so Acarbose stops this, thereby delaying the digestion and absorption of starch and sucrose- small but significant effect in loweing blood glucose.

Acarbose= Starchy effects (potatoes!)

14

What are the common Side effects of acarbose?

FLATULENCE- advise this will decrease with time

Diarrhoea/ Soft stools (as poo becomes sugary due to limited glucose absorption)

Other GI effects

 

15

How should patients be advised to take Acarbose?

Chew with first moutful of food or swallow with a little liquid immediately before food.

16

What happens if a patient on metformin is injected with Iodine X-ray contrast media?

Interaction:

Renal function deteriorates rapidly

can then increase risk of Lactic acidosis

17

What enzyme do the Gliptins inhibit?

How does this help lower glucose?

Linagliptin
Sitagliptin
Vildagliptin
Saxagliptin

Inhibit an enzyme called Dipeptidylpeptidase-4

This enzyme breaks down incretins, incretins trigger insulin secretion and lower glucagon secretion, therefore they are good at helping control glucose, so by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks them down, gliptins increase incretin levels.

Gliptins.. incretins... gliptins.... incretins!

18

What are the side effects of the gliptins (dipeptidylpeptidase 4 inhibitors)? (5)

Upper respiratory tract infections

Gatro-intestinal upset

Peripheral oedema

Pancreatitis

Trigger insulin release so some weight gain?

 

There is less risk of Hypoglyceamia with the gliptins!

19

Which of the gliptins (Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors) should patients have their liver function monitored if taking?

Vildagliptin

 

Report symptoms of liver disease: nausea, vomitting, abdominal pain, fatigue, dark urine

20

Which oral antidiabetics can cause acute pancreatitis?
What are the symptoms of this?

Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins- sitagliptin, Linagliptin etc)

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (Exenatide, Liraglutide, Lixisenatide)

Exanatide especially can cause SEVERE PANCREATITIS

Symtpoms: Persistent and severe abdominal pain
Nausea and vomitting

21

What is the mechanism of action of the Thiazolidinediones? (Only one licensed in UK is pioglitazone)

Reduces peripheral insulin resistance

22

Which oral antidiabetics must care be taken with in Heart Failure? And what cancer can it possibly increase risk of?

Pioglitazone

Incidence of HF increased when pioglitazone is combined with insulin

Also small risk of BLADDER cancer

Signs of bladder cancer: blood in urine, pain on urination, urinary urgency

23

can oral anti-diabetic drugs cause headaches?

Yes- alot of them cause a headache, particularly pioglitazone and the gliptins

24

How do the Meglitinides work?
Can you name them?

When should they be taken?

Nateglinide
Repaglinide

Stimulate insulin secretion

Take 30 minutes before meals

25

Can you name any oral anti-diabetic drugs that can cause liver toxicity?

Pioglitazone

The Gliptins- linagliptin, sitagliptin, vildagliptin

26

What are GLP-1 agonists? How do they work?

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists

Examples:
Exenatide
Liraglutide
Lixisenatide

These are given by SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION- not oral

These work by binding to the GLP-1 receptor causing:

-> Increase in insulin secretion

-> suppression of glucagon secretion (glucagon gets converted in glucose usually)

-> Slow gastric emptying

If given with sulfonylureas or insulin, their dose may need to be reduced as increased risk of hypoglyceamia!

27

What drug do we have to be particularly vigelant for symptoms such as persistent and severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomitting?

Exenatide (GLP-1 agonist)

These are symptoms of pancreatitis- exanatide can cause severe pancreatitis- discontinue permanently

28

What should patients be advised to do if they miss a dose of Exenatide? How should it usually be administered?

Miss that dose out and just continue with the next scheduled dose.

Usual dose is to be injected 1 hour before 2 main meals a day that are at least 6 hours apart

Do not administer the dose after a meal

Some oral med's need to be given 1 hour before or 4 hours after this drug

29

What are the SGLT2 inhibitors?

3 examples?

How do they work?

Sodium Glucose Co-transporter 2 inhibitors

Gliflozins

Examples:
Canagliflozin
Dapagliflozin
Empagliflozin

(DECeeeee!)

The sodium glucose transporter is found in the kidneys: by inhibiting this they stop glucose be re-absorbed in the renal tubule and therefore more glucose is excreted

 

30

What important Side effect can the SGLT2 inhibitors (Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) cause?
What concomitant drugs/ conditions could increase the risk of this?

Volume depletion !

Think floz= flow

Think: these are inhibiting glucose rer-absorption into the renal tubules. Water usually follows the glucose- less reabsorbed= less water follows= more weeing etc

Patients need to report signs of this:
Dizzy, postural hypotension
Side effects:
Thirst
Constipation (less water in stools)
UTI's

Increased risk: things that also decrease fluid volume

Antihypertensives
Elderly
diarrhoea

31

Sitagliptin and Vildagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase enzyme inhibtior enhancing incretin hormone, should only be continued if HbA1c has been reduced by at least ___ percentage points within 6 months of starting treatment

0.5 percentage points

32

Which class of oral anti-diabetics can increase the risk of Genital infections- Thrush and UTI's? Name me some of them 

The SGLT2 inhibitors:

Dapagliflozin

Canagliflozin

Empagliflozin

33

What condition, other than diabetes, can metformin be used in Unlicensed?

Poylcystic ovary syndrome 

It helps to normalise the menstrual cycle an ovulation

34

What are patients on pioglitazone urged to report?

Symptoms of bladder cancer:

heamatruria

dysuria

urinary urgency

Also signs of liver toxicity: blood in urine, severe stomach pain/ nausea and vomiting

35

When should sulfonylureas be taken?

WITH MEALS

36

Patient with hepatic impairment prescribed a sulfonylurea?

Reduce the dose- sulfonylureas metabolised hepatically- they will accumulate and cause hypoglyceamia

37

How should Acarbose be taken?

Chewed with first mouthful of food/ with a bit of water immediately before food

38

What is the name of the thiazide diuretic that can be chronic intractable hypoglyceamia in Neonates/ children?

Diazoxide

 

(remember diuretics can cause hyperglyceamia)

39

You have a patient suffering from newly diagnosed T2 diabetes with poor renal function, What would be your first line choice of antidiabetic?

A sulfonylurea- Gliclazide

40

If a patient is of European Descent and they have a BMI of over 35, and metformin and gliclazide have failed to control their BG, what agent would you consider next?

Exenatide


This is a NICE recommendation