Flashcards in Vaccines/ malaria/ incubation periods Deck (58):
What vaccines are indicated for a patient with Sickle cell anaemia for prophylaxis of infection?
Influenza type B vaccine
+ Anual Influenza vaccine
Poss Hepatitis B
Prophylactic penicillins also considered
Remember HYDROXYCARBAMIDE (anti-cancer drug) can reduce the frequency of sickle cell crises!!
Which anti-malarial treatment is suitable for short trips as it only needs to be taken for 1-2 days before and 7 days after the trip?
Malarone- Proguanil + Atovaquone
Which antibiotic can be used for malarial prophylaxis?
How long is malarial prophylaxis usually indicated for after leaving the area?
(apart from malarone- 7 days)
Any illness within __ months of returning from travel to a malarial region should be referred to their GP
within 3 months especially
Which anti-malarials are unsuitable for a patient with a history of EPILEPSY?
Which anti-malarial is to be avoided in renal impairment?
Which two anti-malarials can be continued at their normal doses in pregnancy?
Which drug, safe to be used in pregnant women at the usual dose, should folic acid be taken with?
Especially in 1st trimester
Where travels require two different regimens for two diff areas, what should be done?
Regimen for the higher risk area should be used for the whole journey
Which antibiotic, that can be used for falciparum malaria treatment, should be avoided in pregnancy?
Doxycycline- effects teeth and bone development
Quinine and clindamycin used instead
What anti-malarial drug can possibly cause ocular toxicity when its used at higher doses for Rhumatoid Arthritis / Lupus etc?
Hydroxychloroquine also causes this
Which anti malarial drug has been associated with neuropsychiatric reactions, and should be discontinued if patients experience nightmares, anxiety, depression, confusion?
It is contraindicated in those with a history of psychiatric disorders or convulsions.
What drug do impregnated mosquito nets contain?
Incubation period for whooping cough
6 - 21 days
Incubation period for chicken pox
7 - 21 days (1-3 weeks)
Incubation period for mumps
14 - 21 days
Incubation period for rubella (german measles)
14 - 21 days
Incubation period for measles
7 - 14 days
Which vaccine leaves a blister immediately after/ a crusty spot (papule) at the injection site 2-6 weeks after it?
TB (BCG) Vaccine
It usually leaves a small scar
When is the TB (BCG) vaccine given?
babies (neonate), children and adults under the age of 35 who are considered at risk of catching tuberculosis (TB).
Not given to anyone over the age of 35, as there's no evidence that it works for people in this age group
When is the 5 in 1 DTaP/IPV/Hib Jab first doses given?
Pertussis (whooping cough)
Heamophilus influenza type B
remember: 5 in 1 = 2, 3, 4
When is the Pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) given?
Booster 12-13 months
When is Meningitis C first vaccine doses given?
And booster ?
Booster :12-13 months
When is rotavirus (stomach bug) vaccine given?
When is the Meningitis C/ heamophilus influenza B (Hib) booster given?
12 - 13 months
When is the pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) booster given?
12 -13 months
When is the first dose of the MMR jab given?
12- 13 months
The 5 in 1 DTap/IPV/Hib vaccine is firstly given at 2,3,4 months old. A Heamophillus influenza B (Hib) booster is then given at 12 months with Men C. When is the next dose, containing only diphtheria, polio, tetanus and pertussis, given?
Between 3 years 4 months and 5 years
(before they start school)
How many doses of the 5 in 1 (DTaP/ IPV/ Hib) vaccine is there in total?
3 doses to start, then a another of Hib at 12 months and the rest at 3 years 4 months, then a fifth dose of just Tetanus, Diptheria and Polio needed in high school (13-18 years)
Remember it is active against 5 in 1 and5 doses doses
What vaccine is given to girls aged 12- 13 years?
HPV (human papillomavirus- cervical cancer) 2 dose schedule: first 11- 13 years (must be given before 15), second 6-12 months later
When is the final dose of Tetanus, diphtheria and polio (only 3 of the 5 in 1 jab) given?
When is the (newly introduced 2015) children annual LIVE nasal spray flu vaccine (FLUENZ) given?
2, 3, 4 years for sure
Those in their 1st and 2nd year school (5+ 6 years) possibly
If they are at particular risk they can get it up to 17 years
Adults aged __ and over are eligible for the NHS Flu Jab free?
Mr H has a BMI of 36. What jab does this make him eligible for free of charge?
NHS Flu Jab
Free for those very overweight
Mrs M has been on long term corticosteroid therapy for her stage 5 Asthma. What vaccine is she eligible for and why?
Long term steroids: immune system suppressed. Asthma
What 6 ingredients do vaccines sometimes contains, excluding the virus itself?
Thiomersal (mercury, a preservative)
Aluminium adjuvants: inactive vaccine adsorbed onto aluminium to enhance immune response
Stabilizers: Gelatine, Albumin
Neonates at risk should receive what two vaccines?
Give examples of LIVE vaccines?
What age can the meningitis C vaccine booster be given?
13 - 15 years
What vaccine is indicated for women of child bearing age if they have not previously received the 2 jabs for it?
But must exclude pregnancy before hand! do not give vaccines to pregnant women bar the flu vaccine
What vaccine is indicated for 70 year olds (hint: not the flu vaccine- over 65s)
Varicella zoster vaccine (shingles)
What vaccine is indicated for parenteral drug misusers?
Patients with certain medical conditions such as asthma, COPD, neurological conditions, diabetes, HIV, are eligible for the flu vaccine from what age?
Food hygiene is recommended in areas where there is poor sanitation to prevent what diseases?
Food hygeine is recommended in areas where there is poor sanitation. This involves sticking to hot, freshly prepared foods and avoiding what?
Green salads, uncooked vegetables
Only eat fruit that can be peeled
Only bottled water or tap water that has been boiled or treated with sterilising tablets
When should LIVE vaccines be avoided?
In individuals who are immunocompromised
How should post-vaccine pyrexia be managed in infants (1-12 months)?
Paracetamol (dose for over 2 months: 60mg [2.5ml] followed by second dose 4-6 hours later if needed)
Can use Ibuprofen if needed: for over 3 months
How long does the yellow fever vaccine provide immunity for before requiring re-vaccination?
How long can doxycycline be used for malaria prophylaxis?
Is DEET safe to use in pregnancy and breast feeding?
Is there a link between the MMR vaccine and bowel disease/ Autism?
NO- CSM have ruled this out
Can the MMR vaccine be given if a child is hypersensitive to Eggs?
What are the common SE's of the MMR jab?
Malaise, fever, rash - can occur a week after the vaccine
Can MMR and Yellow fever vaccines be given on the same day?
No- leave at least 4 week interval
Can antipyretics/ analgesics (paracetamol etc) be given BEFORE live vaccine administration?
No- may decrease immune response so avoid before but can give it after
If two live vaccines need to be given, when should they be given?
Give them on the same day- if not possible then give 4 weeks apart. this is so that you reduce the interference of immune response to the first vaccine by the second one.
NB: a Live and an inactive vaccine may be given at any time in relation to each other... same with parenteral and intranasal.