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Flashcards in Chickens Deck (72)
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1

what is the normal temp of a chicken?

40-42 degree

2

what is the normal HR of a chicken?

120-160bpm

3

what is the normal RR of a chicken?

20-30brpm

4

what are the best sites for blood sampling chickens?

jugular or wing v.

5

why must blood counts be done manually for birds?

do not have neutrophils - have heterophiles instead

6

chickens do not have sweat or sebaceous glands BUT they do have some other glands - what are they?

preen gland at the base of the tail
gland in external auditory canal
ventral glands of the cloaca

7

what is the brood patch?

an area of feathers on the ventrum that cyclically moult and re-grow that is controlled hormonally

8

what is the brood patch rich in?

thermoreceptors

9

which feathers are clipped in wing clipping?

the first 10 feathers of one wing only

10

what is the structure of a chicken GIT?

beak - mouth - crop - proventriculus - gizzard - intestines - caeca - cloaca

11

what is the cloaca?

the common opening for the GIT and repro tracts

12

what is the relationship between the proventriculus and the gizzard?

food is passed back and forth between the structures with the proventriculus acting as the true stomach and the gizzard as the teeth

13

what must poultry have in their diet to allow the gizzard to function correctly?

insoluble grit

14

what are the main Sx of resp disease in chickens?

nasal discharge
coughing / sneezing
head shaking
gasping
noisy breathing

15

what are the 11 Ddx for resp disease in chickens?

1. Infectious bronchitis
2. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheite
3. Infectious laryngotracheitis
4. Aspergillus fumigateurs
5. Chlamydiosis
6. Avian Influenza
7. Pigeon Paramyxovirus
8. Newcastle disease
9. Avian metapneumovirus
10. Mycoplasmosis
11. Gape worm

16

what causes infectious bronchitis in chickens?

type 3 coronavirus

17

what areas of the body does infectious bronchitis affect?

female repro tract, urinary tract and resp tract

18

what are the main Sx of infectious bronchitis?

resp disease
egg drop
poor egg quality
egg peritonitis

19

how is infectious bronchitis Px?

live vaccine for boilers and breeders

20

what are the main Sx of ornithobacterium rhinotracheite infection?

coughing
egg drop
sneezing
bronchopneumonia

21

how is ornithobacterium rhinotracheite Px?

autologous vaccination

22

what causes infectious laryngotracheitis?

gallid herpes virus 1

23

what are the main Sx of infectious laryngotracheitis?

difficulty breathing
gasping

24

how can infectious laryngotracheitits be Px? what is the problem with this method of Px?

vaccination

vaccination is live and some birds may become latently infected and shed the virus at times of stress

25

what causes avian influenza?

orthomyxovirus

26

which type of avian influenza is classed as high pathogenicity?

type A, H5 and H7

27

which strain of avian influenza is of public health concern? why?

H7N9

low pathogenicity in chickens BUT high mortality in humans

28

what are the main Sx of avian influenza?

egg drop, resp distress, D+, sudden death

29

what causes Newcastle disease?

paramyxovirus

30

what are the 4 types of Newcastle disease and what pathology is associated with each?

viscerotropic - GIT haemorrhage
neurotropic - resp and neuro lesions
mesogenic - resp and neuro lesions
asymptomatic enteric

31

what is the difference between the neurotropic and mesotropic forms of Newcastle disease?

neurotropic = high mortality
mesogenic = low mortality

32

how is Newcastle disease Dx?

via oropharyngeal swabs

33

how is Newcastle disease Px?

live vaccine in layers and breeders

34

what does avian metapnuemovirus cause?

rhinotracheitis

35

what are the four subtypes of metapnuemovirus?

A,B,C and D

36

what are the main Sx of rhinotracheitis?

resp disease
egg peritonitis

37

how does infection with avian metapneumovirus differ in chickens cf. turkeys?

milder disease seen in in chickens BUT may lead to swollen head syndrome

38

how can avian metapneumovirus be Px?

live vaccine for subtypes A and B

39

which two mycoplasma spp affect chickens?

M. gallisepticum
M. synoviae

40

how might mycoplasma infection of a flock affect the owner economically?

UK flocks must be free from myocoplasmosis for export

41

what are the main sx of mycoplasmosis in flocks?

resp. disease
swollen hocks / arthritis
egg drop
sternal bursitis

42

how can mycoplasmosis be Px?

vaccination

43

what is the gape worm?

syngamus trachea - a hookworm causing mechanical damage to the trachea, asphyxiation and coughing

44

which diseases are notifiable in chickens?

avian influenza
Newcastle disease
pigeon paramyxovirus

45

what are the regions of the female repro tract of birds?

infundibulum
magnum
isthmus
uterus
vagina
cloaca

46

what is the function of each region of the female repro tract?

infundibulum = capture ovum
magnum = addition of albumin
isthmus = addition of shell membranes
uterus = addition of the egg shell

47

what is 'candling'?

a procedure done at 9-10d after incubation to determine fertility of the eggs

48

how long are chicken eggs incubated for cf. turkey and duck eggs?

21d cf. 28d

49

what are the 7 main problems which affect the repro tract of chickens?

oviduct infection
egg peritonitis
IBV infection
M. synoviae
egg bound
vent gleet
pyometra

50

why might a chicken become egg bound?

lack of Ca in diet

51

which 4 viruses can be transmitted vertically in chickens?

Retrovirus - lymphoid leucosis
Reovirus - viral arthritis
Adenovirus - egg drop syndrome
Astrovirus

52

which 4 bacterial spp can be transmitted vertically in chickens?

salmonella
e. coli
staph
mycoplasma

53

what are the 3 main immunosuppressive diseases seen in chickens?

infectious bursal disease virus
chicken anaemia virus
marek's disease

54

what does IBDv affect?

the bursa and B-cell production

55

what are the effects of IBDv infection?

mortality of up to 40% and immune suppression, bursal lesions

56

how is infection with IBDv Px?

live vaccine for boilers
inactivated vaccine for layers and breeders

57

what does chicken anaemia virus affect?

the thymus and T cells

58

what is the difference between CAV maternal Ab +ve vs -ve chicks?

+ve = protected from disease
-ve = susceptible to disease from 2wks age

59

what lesions are seen with CAV?

thymus and spleen - atrophy and immunosuppression via T cells
bone marrow - anaemia

60

when are clinical Sx of CAV seen and what are they?

infected > 7d, Sx from 12-17d

anorexia, depression, low PCV, leukopenia, immune suppression

61

how is CAV Px?

live vaccine in breeding birds

62

what is Marek's disease?

tumour caused by an oncogenic herpes virus - mardivirus

63

what characterised Marek's disease?

nerve swelling and tumours

64

how is Marek's disease Px?

SC vaccine at 1d of age

65

How is Marek's transmitted?

mature virus excretion by feather follicles --> inhaled
high virus load in dust

66

what are the 4 manifestations of Marek's and what type of lesions do they cause?

a. neurological - floppy broiler syndrome = paralysis of legs and wings, eye lesion due to sciatic and brachial n. being affected

b. visceral - tumours of the heart, gonads, muscles and lungs

c. cutaneous - tumours of the feather follicles

d. ocular - uni or bilateral eye tumours

67

What virus causes avian encephalomyelitis?

Picornavirus

68

Which bone is affected by dyschondroplasia in chickens?

Proximal tibiotarsus

69

What is the pathogenesis of egg Peritonitis?

Oviduct fimbriae fail to catch egg yolk - deposited in abdomen - Peritonitis

70

Which bacterial agent is involved in egg Peritonitis?

E. Coli

71

What causes egg drop syndrome?

Adenovirus

72

What is egg drop syndrome?

Drop in egg production by 5-50% over 3-4wks caused by adenovirus

Shell quality may be affected - loss of pigment, rough, thin, soft